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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
name 6 patterns of theorizing crime
demonology (prechristianity), christianity, renaissance, classical period, neoclassical, and positivist
in this theory you have no individual choice, demons are responsible. "the devil made me do it"
in this era you had individual choice
this era includes worldly vs. other worldly.
naturalism: basically rational, biological organisms, interact as part of a culture, motivated by unconcious forces
who was important from the classical period and what did he do
cesare beccaria - wrote an essay on crime and punishment. people make choices based on rational calculations founded on a hedonistic principle. mind of offender. rational
who came up with the idea of a penal pharmacy and what is it
cesare beccaria - each offense would incur a prescribed penalty
what was there a need for in the neoclassical period
a need for judicial discretion in criminal punishments. (mensrea)
what is mensrea
punishment can only be given to people who have mental capacity to know right and wrong
free will principle is also vulnerable (not everyone has free will) in this period
neoclassical period
who founded the positivist school of criminology
C. lambroso
who applied rules of scientific method to study of crime, tested theories
lambroso, hooten, goring, sheldon
italian physician and psychiatrist that looked at the relationship between physical abnormalties and certain criminality. believed some criminality is hereditary
describe the three types of criminals lambroso suggests
1. born criminals - "true" criminals. distinguishable by their stigmata

2. insane, imbiciles, epileptics

3. "criminaloid" - physically and biologically disposed to crime but not created for it
who is the harvard anthropologist that uses eugenics and says criminals are genetically inferior
ernest hooten
who wrote the book "the american criminal"
who said you can eliminate crime by eliminating the physically and morally unfit
who did 12 years of scientific research on 10,000 incarcerated criminals with a control group of non criminals
who is a british penologist whose findings leaned toward refuting lombroso
charles goring
who studied 3000 prisoners vs 1000 cambridge students and said prisoners are not necessarily representative
charles goring
who developed the "somato type theory of crime"
william sheldon - 1940s
what are the 3 body types sheldon describes
endomorph- round, pudgy, has a relaxed temperment, plus size

mesomorph- muscular, extroverted, agressive

ectomorph- thin, fragile, introverted psychologically
most juvenile delinquents had what kind of body type according to sheldon
describe crimes of theory at the individual level
focus of crime is "in" the person, genes, biology, body type, etc. these are single factor theory people
multi factor theorists have thoerys at what levels
family/community or societal
what did sheldon and elanor gleuck say was the reason for 60% of juve dels to be mesomorphs
selection factor in gangs
who came up with the ecological aka "concentric zone" theory
clifford shaw- chicago school 1920s-30s
describe the concentric zones and which one shaw says has social disorganiztion
industrial sector, zone of transition, suburbs.

transition has SD
what aspects of social disorganization cause crime according to clifford shaw
high divorce rates, high poverty and low income, low education, wedlock births, and high crime rates
gang theory is by whom
frederick thrasher
who wrote "the gang" in 1927 and what was it
frederick thrasher - first sociological story of gangs. he studied 1300 gangs in chicago and neighborhood traditions
who came up with the diferential association thoery in the 1930s
edwin sutherland
who rejects the idea that social disorganization causes crime
edwin sutherland
edwin sutherland says that different forms of ____ ____ cayse crime. crime is ____
social organization, learned
sutherland says that crime is caused by an excess of definitions ____ to violation of the law over ____ to violation of the law
favorable, unfavorable
who rejects the bad causes bad fallacy
albert k cohen
albert k cohen is a __ ___ theorist
social org
albert k cohen studied ___ and __
del boys and culture gang
who came up with strain theory
albert k cohen
cohen defines deviance as...
mismatch between desire for something and your ability to achieve it.
cohen is associated with normlessness or ___
what does robert k murton say crime is caused by..
disjuctive between culturally prescribed goals and socially acceptable means to acheive those goals whcih result from different possibilities of acheiving the culturally acceptable goals
murton is considered a ____ theorist
culturally defined goals include
inovators, rebellion, conformity
socially defined goals include
ritualism, rebellion, retreatism, and conformity
define ethnography
a careful description of a culture on its own terms
what happens to max in the end?
moved to florida with suzanne
what happens to chillie in the end?
gets shot, moves to domincan republic and drowns
what happens to splib in the end?
lives with wife in jersey with baby. tried various jobs - short order cook, painter etc
what happens to jake in the end?
continued selling coke in bronx
what happens to masterrap in the end?
became a chef
what happened to hector in the end
got caught up with basing, moved back with parents
what happened to kitty?
kitty and carlos moved to the bronx with new baby
what happened to charlie
tried to run la oficina but couldnt. attending community college
this member is skinny and freckle-faced. looks up to his little brother max
a tireless worker, honest and loyal. 17 years old. met max by accident on the street. sister knew maxs wife
boss of la oficina. supervises masterrap and charlie. takes in more money than anyone except max.
likes to rap. second man behind the scale.
only african american on the crew. was high school friends with chillie. learned to shoot a gun after his uncle. is bodygaurd of office
only woman. splibs wife. wants to go back to school
only person who deals as an independent. oldest of crew. likes to con and manipulate people.