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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Behavior that conforms to the rules or norms of the group in which it occurs
Normal behavior
Ways of directing or influencing members to conform to the group's values and norms
Mechanisms of social control
Sanctions applied in a public ritual, usually under the direct or indrect control of authorities
Formal sanctions
Sanctions applied spontaneously by group members with little or no formal direction
Informal sanctions
Displays that people use spontaneously to express their approval of another's behavior
Informal positive sanctions
The breaking of criminal laws by individuals younger than age 18
Juvenile Crime
Any behavior that violates a society's criminal laws
The original behavior that leads to the application of a label to an individual
Primary deviance
The symbolic system in terms of which behavior takes on the quality of being good or bad, right or wrong
Moral Code
A thin linear body type associated with being inhibited, secretive, and restrained
The resocialization of criminals to conform to society's values and norms and the teaching of usable work habits and skills
Actions that encourage an individual to continue acting in a certain way (i.e. rewards)
Positive sanctions
Behavior that people develop as a result of having been labeled as deviant
Secondary Deviance
Crimes committed even after punishment has occurred
A state of normlessness, in which values and norms have little effect and the culture no longer provides adequate guidelines for behavior
Spontaneous displays of disapproval or displeasure
Informal negative sanctions
Acts by individuals who, while occupying positions of social responsibility or high prestige, break the law in cource of their work
White-collar crime
People who pull back from society altogether and cease to pursue culturally legitimitate goals
Behavior that fails to conform to the rules or norms of a group in which it occurs.
Deviant Behavior
Acts that violate those laws meant to enforce the moral code
Victimless crime
A ruggedly muscular body type associated with being assertive and action oriented
According to Lombroso, evolutionary throwbacks whose behavior is more apelike than human
Atavistic being
A thought process that makes it possible to justify illegal or deviant behavior
Techniques of neutralization
The most serious crimes, usually punishable by a year or more in prison
Argues that deviant behavior is an intregal part of all healthy societies; developed the concept of anomie
Emile Durkheim
Suggested that criminals were evolutionary throwbacks who could be identified by primitive physical features, particularly with regard to the head
Cesare Lombroso
Argued that crime is produced by the unconscious impulses of the individual
Sigmund Freud
Argued that crime is the product of a rational choice by an individual as a result of weighing the costs and benefits of alternative courses of action
James Q. Wilson and Richard Hernstein
Developed control theory in which it is hypothesized that the strength of social bonds keeps most of us from becoming criminals
Travis Hirschi
Suggested that certain neighborhoods generate a culture of crime that is passed on to residents
Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay
Developed the theory of differential association to explain why some people and not others become deviant; coined the tern white-collar crime
Edwin H. Sutherland
Pioneered the development of labeling theory
Edwin Lemert
Argued that even if there were only a slim possibility that executing a murderer would deter future murders, we should execute them
Ernst van den Haag
Argued that the born criminal was a scientific reality and that crime was not the product of social conditions but the outgrowth of "organic" inferiority
E.A. Hooten