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94 Cards in this Set

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wood light frame construction
The most versatile and easily constructed method of constructing buildings. It the most common used method of constructing buildings today.
balloon frame
A wooden building frame composed of closely spaced members nominally 2 inches in thickness, in which the wall members are single pieces that run from the sill to the top plates at the eave.
joist
One of a parallel array of light, closely spaced beams used to support a floor deck or low-slope roof.
stud
One of an array of small, closely spaced, parallel wall framing members; a heavy steel pin.
rafter
A framing member that runs up and down the slope of a steep roof.
firestop
A wood or masonry baffle used to close an opening between studs or joists in a balloon or platform frame in order to retard the spread of fire through the opening.
platform frame
A wooden building frame composed of closely spaced members nominally 2 inches in thickness, in which the wall members do not run past the floor framing members.
sheathing
The rough covering applied to the outside of the roof, wall, or floor framing of a light frame structure.
header
Lintel; band joist; a joist supports other joists; in steel construction, a beam that spans between girders; a brick or other masonry unit that is laid across two wythes with its end exposed in the face of the wall.
rim joist
A wooden joist running perpendicular to the primary direction of the joists in a floor and closing off the floor platform at the outside face of the building.
band joist
A wooden joist running perpendicular to the primary direction of the joists in a floor and closing off the floor platform at the outside face of the building.
subfloor
The loadbearing surface beneath a finish floor.
sole plate
The horizontal piece of dimension lumber at the bottom of the studs in a wall in a light frame building.
top plate
The horizontal member at the top of a stud wall.
ridge board
The board against which the tips of rafters are fastened.
trimmer
A beam that supports a header around an opening in a floor or roof frame.
sill
The strip of wood that lies immediately on top of a concrete or masonry foundation in wood light frame construction; the horizontal bottom portion of a window or door; the exterior surface, usually sloped to shed water, below the bottom of a window or door.
wracking
Forcing out of plumb.
framing plan
A diagram showing the arrangement and sizes of the structural members in a floor or roof.
architectural floor plan
Indicates the locations and dimensions of all the walls, partitions and openings.
exterior elevation
Drawings that show the outside faces of the building, with vertical framing dimensions indicated as required.
sections
Drawings that cut completely through the building, showing the dimensional relationships of the various floor levels and roof planes, and the slopes of the roof surfaces.
interior elevation
Drawings prepared for kitchens, bathrooms, and other rooms with elaborate interior features.
rough carpentry
Framing carpentry, as distinguished from finish carpentry.
let-in diagonal bracing
Diagonal bracing that is nailed into notches cut in the face of the studs so that it does not increase the thickness of the wall.
sill sealer
A resilient, fibrous material placed between a foundation and a sill to reduce air infiltration between the outdoors and indoors.
anchor bolt
A bolt embedded in concrete for the purpose of fastening a building frame to a concrete or masonry foundation.
blocking
Pieces of wood inserted tightly between joists, studs, or rafters in a building frame to stabilize the structure, inhibit the passage of fire, provide a nailing surface for finish materials, or retain insulation.
bridging
Bracing or blocking installed between steel or wood joists at midspan to stabilize them against buckling and, in some cases, to permit adjacent joists to share loads.
shear wall
A wall that is properly sheathed that acts to resist lateral forces.
pitch
The slope of a roof or other plane, often expressed as inches of rise per foot of run; a dark, viscous hydrocarbon distilled from coal tar; a viscous resin found in wood.
rise
A difference in elevation, such as the rise of a stair from one floor to the next or the rise per foot of run in a sloping roof.
run
Horizontal dimension in a stair or sloping roof.
rafter
A framing member that runs up and down the slope of a steep roof.
hip
The diagonal intersection of planes in a hip roof.
valley
A trough formed by the intersection of two roof slopes.
pattern rafter
The first rafter of each type that is laid out by the head carpenter from which other carpenters trace and cut the remainder of the rafters.
roof truss
A method of framing a roof that finds widespread use in platform frame buildings because of their speed of erection, economy of material usage, and long spans.
lookout
A short rafter, running perpendicular to the other rafters in the roof, which supports a rake overhang.
floor truss
A method of framing a floor that finds widespread use in platform frame buildings because of their speed of erection, economy of material usage, and long spans.
shed
A building or dormer with a single-pitched roof.
gable
The triangular wall beneath the end of a gable roof.
gambrel
A roof shape consisting of two superimposed levels of gable roofs with the lower level at a steeper pitch than the upper.
mansard
A roof shape consisting of two superimposed levels of hip roofs with the lower level at a steeper pitch than the upper.
knee wall
A short wall under the slope of a roof.
fly rafter
A rafter in a rake overhang.
eave
The horizontal edge at the low side of a sloping roof.
plumb cut
A saw cut that produces a vertical (plumb) surface at the lower end of a sloping rafter after the rafters is in its final position.
level cut
A saw cut that produces a level surface at the lower end of a sloping rafter when the rafter is in its final position.
collar tie
A piece of wood nailed across two opposing rafters near the ridge to resist wind uplift.
dormer
A structure protruding through the plane of a sloping roof, usually containing a window and having its own smaller roof.
fascia
The exposed vertical face of an eave.
hip roof
A roof consisting of four sloping planes that intersect to form a pyramidal or elongated pyramid shape.
gable roof
A roof consisting of two oppositely sloping planes that intersect at a level ridge.
jack rafter
A shortened rafter that joins a hip or valley rafter.
batter board
Pieces of wood stuck into the ground just beyond the area to be excavated to mark out the shape of a building that serve as reference markers for the builder.
framing square
A tool used to solve the geometric problem of laying out the diagonal hip rafters.
prefabricated assemblies
Assembled building components, such as roof and floor trusses, put together at a factory and then transported to the site to be installed.
eave
The horizontal edge at the low side of a sloping roof.
rake
The sloping edge of steep roof.
gutter
A channel to collect rainwater and snowmelt at the eave of a roof.
downspout or leader
A vertical pipe for conducting water from a roof to a lower level.
splash block
A small precast block of concrete or plastic used to divert water at the bottom of a downspout.
dry well
An underground pit filled with broken stone or other porous material, from which rainwater from a roof drainage system can seep into the surrounding soil.
ice dam
An obstruction along the eave of a roof, caused by the refreezing of water emanating from melting snow on the roof surface above.
vent spacer
A device used to maintain a free air passage above the thermal insulation in an attic or roof.
soffit vent
An opening under the eave of a roof used to allow air to flow into the attic or the space below the roof sheathing.
gable vent
A screened, louvered opening in a gable, used for exhausting excess heat and humidity from an attic.
continuous ridge vent
A screened, water-shielded ventilation opening that runs continuously along the ridge of a gable roof.
ice-and-water shield
A bituminous sheet material that self-heals around nails, applied to roof sheathing along the eaves to prevent entry of water caused by ice dams.
housewrap
A thin, airtight, vapor-permeable paper made of synthetic fibers as higher performance substitutes for the traditional felt material. They are stapled to the sheathing in large sheets just before the windows and doors are installed.
shingles
A small unit of water-resistant material nailed in overlapping fashion with many other such units to render a wall or sloping roof watertight; to apply shingles.
vehicle
One of the 4 basic types of ingredients used in most architectural coating materials. Provides adhesion to the substrate and forms a film over it.
film-former
Another name for a vehicle.
solvent
One of the 4 basic types of ingredients used in most architectural coatings. A liquid that dissolves another material.
pigment
One of the 4 basic types of ingredients used in most architectural coatings.
additive
One of the 4 basic types of ingredients used in most architectural coatings.
volatile organic compound (VOC)
A compound released into the air from many coatings and other materials that contribute to both interior and exterior air pollution.
enamel
A glossy or semigloss paint
stain
Applied to substrates like wood or concrete to change their color. Their color ranges from transparent to semitransparent and solid.
clear coating
Intended to protect the substrate, make it easier to keep clean, and bring out its inherent beauty.
lacquer
A clear coating that dries extremely quickly through evaporation of a volatile solvent.
varnish
A slow-drying transparent coating.
shellac
A clear coating for interior use that dries rapidly and gives a very fine finish, but it is highly susceptible to water damage.
primer
A pigmented coating especially formulated to make a surface more paintable.
sealer
A coating used to close the pores in a surface, usually in preparation for the application of a finish coating.
siding
The exterior wall finish material applied to a light frame structure.
nail-base sheathing
A sheathing material, such as wood boards or plywood, to which siding can be attached by nailing, as differentiated from one such as cane fiber board or plastic foam board that is too soft to hold nails.
siding nail
A nail with a small head, used to fasten siding to a building.
bevel siding
Wood cladding boards that taper in cross section.
shiplap
A board with edges rabbeted so as to overlap flush from one board to the next.
tongue and groove
An interlocking edge detail for joining planks or panels.
stucco
A portland cement plaster that is a strong, durable, economical, fire resistant material for siding light frame buildings.
masonry veneer
A single wythe of masonry used as a facing over a frame of wood or metal.