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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the chance of an event occurring
probability experiment
a chance process that leads to well defined results called outcomes
the result of a single trial of a probability experiment
sample space
the set of all possible outcomes of a probability experiment
a set of outcomes of a probability experiment
simple event
event with one outcome
compound event
consists of two or more outcomes or simple events
the three basic interpretations of probability
1) classical probability
2)empirical or relative frequency probability
3)subjective probability
classical probability assumes...
that all outcomes in the sample space are equally likely to occur
formula for classical probability
the probability of any event "E" is

(number of outcomes divided in E)/
(total number of outcomes in sample space)
in what ways can probabilities be expressed?
as fraction, decimals and sometimes percentages
rounding rule for probabilities
should be expressed as reduced fractions or rounded to two or three decimal places

for very small probability round to the nearest non zero
four basic probability rules
The sum of probabilities of the outcome in a sample space it 1.
If an event "E" is certain, the probability of "E" is 1.
If an event "E" cannot occur, the probability is 0.
The probability of event "E" is between and including 0 and 1.
the complement of event "E" is shown by...
E "bar"
Venn diagrams represent
probabilities pictorially
empirical probability
relies on actual experience or observation to determine the likelihood of outcomes
Formula for empirical probability

f=frequency for class
n=total frequencies in the distribution
the law of large numbers
as the number of trials increase the empirical probability will approach the theoretical probability
subjective probability
uses opinions and inexact information

(educated guesses)
mutually exclusive events
cannet occur at the same time, they have no outcomes in common
when "A" and "B" are mutually exclusive the probability that "A" or "B" will occur is
when "A" and "b" are NOT mutually exclusive the probability is found by
P(A)+P(B)-P(A and B)
independent events
do not effect the probability of another event occurring
rule for two independent events both occurring
dependent events
if the outcome or occurrence of one event effects the outcome or occurrence of another
for dependent events the probability of both occurring is
conditional probability
the probability of event "B" occurring after event "A"
formula for conditional probability
P(A and B)/P(A)
an arrangement of objects in a specific order
Permutation rule
nPr = n!/(n-r)!

n= objects
r= objects at a time
selection of objects without regard to order
combinations are used when
the order of arrangement is not important
combination rule
nCr = n!/(n-r)!r!

n= objects
r= objects at a time
fundamental counting rule (define)
the number of ways a sequence of "n" events can occur if the first event can occur K 1 ways, the second can occur K 2 ways, etc.