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### 31 Cards in this Set

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 raw data data in original form frequency distribution organization of raw data into a table with classes and frequencies categorical frequency distribution used for data that can be categorized such as nominal and ordinal level data lower class limit the smallest data that can be included in a class upper class limit the largest data value that can be included in a classs class boundaries numbers used to separate classes so there are no gaps lower boundary=lower limit-.5 upper boundary=upper limit+.5 A frequency distribution should have between________ and _________ classes. between 5 and 20 In a frequency distribution the class width should be... . an odd number. Classes in a frequency distribution should be __________. overlapping mutually exclusive mutually exclusive When can you omit a class that has a frequency of zero? only when it is the 1st or last class Classes in frequency distributions must have equal _________. widths How do you obtain the class midpoint? (lower boundary + upper boundary) divided by 2 How do you determine class width? divide the range by the # of classes then round up if there is a decimal remainder histogram a graph that displays data with contiguous bars of different heights to display data x axis represents ___________, y axis represents ___________ in a histogram. x axis represents class boundaries y axes represents the frequency frequency polygon a graph that displays data with lines that connect to points plotted for frequencies at the midpoints of the classes X axes represents ___________, Y axes represents ___________ on a frequency polygon. x axes represents the midpoint for each class y axes represents the frequencies The choice between using the frequency polygon or the histogram to display data should be made by...... the discretion of the researcher. ogive a graph that represents cumulative frequencies for the classes in a frequency distribution x axes represents __________, y axes represents ____________ in an ogive. x axes represents the class boundaries y axes represents the cumulative frequencies relative frequency graph graphs using proportions rather than raw data How do you convert a frequency into a proportion or relative frequency? divide the frequency of each class by the total of the frequencies bell shaped distribution uniform with one peak at the middle uniform distribution rectangular shaped right skewed distribution (tail to right) left skewed distribution (tail to left) bimodal distribution two "peaks" U-shaped distribution U (self explanatory) pareto chart used to represent non-numerical categorical variable x axes represents ___________, y axes represents ___________ on a pareto chart. x axes represents categories y axes represents frequencies For a pie graph, how do you convert a frequency to a percentage? f = frequency n = sum of frequencies (f/n)*100%