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31 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
raw data

data in original form


frequency distribution

organization of raw data into a table with classes and frequencies


categorical frequency distribution

used for data that can be categorized such as nominal and ordinal level data


lower class limit

the smallest data that can be included in a class


upper class limit

the largest data value that can be included in a classs


class boundaries

numbers used to separate classes so there are no gaps
lower boundary=lower limit.5 upper boundary=upper limit+.5 

A frequency distribution should have between________ and _________ classes.

between 5 and 20


In a frequency distribution the class width should be... .

an odd number.


Classes in a frequency distribution should be __________.
overlapping mutually exclusive 
mutually exclusive


When can you omit a class that has a frequency of zero?

only when it is the 1st or last class


Classes in frequency distributions must have equal _________.

widths


How do you obtain the class midpoint?

(lower boundary + upper boundary)
divided by 2 

How do you determine class width?

divide the range by the # of classes then round up if there is a decimal remainder


histogram

a graph that displays data with contiguous bars of different heights to display data


x axis represents ___________,
y axis represents ___________ in a histogram. 
x axis represents class boundaries
y axes represents the frequency 

frequency polygon

a graph that displays data with lines that connect to points plotted for frequencies at the midpoints of the classes


X axes represents ___________,
Y axes represents ___________ on a frequency polygon. 
x axes represents the midpoint for each class
y axes represents the frequencies 

The choice between using the frequency polygon or the histogram to display data should be made by......

the discretion of the researcher.


ogive

a graph that represents cumulative frequencies for the classes in a frequency distribution


x axes represents __________,
y axes represents ____________ in an ogive. 
x axes represents the class boundaries
y axes represents the cumulative frequencies 

relative frequency graph

graphs using proportions rather than raw data


How do you convert a frequency into a proportion or relative frequency?

divide the frequency of each class by the total of the frequencies


bell shaped distribution

uniform with one peak at the middle


uniform distribution

rectangular shaped


right skewed distribution

(tail to right)


left skewed distribution

(tail to left)


bimodal distribution

two "peaks"


Ushaped distribution

U (self explanatory)


pareto chart

used to represent nonnumerical categorical variable


x axes represents ___________,
y axes represents ___________ on a pareto chart. 
x axes represents categories
y axes represents frequencies 

For a pie graph, how do you convert a frequency to a percentage?

f = frequency
n = sum of frequencies (f/n)*100% 