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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
raw data
data in original form
frequency distribution
organization of raw data into a table with classes and frequencies
categorical frequency distribution
used for data that can be categorized such as nominal and ordinal level data
lower class limit
the smallest data that can be included in a class
upper class limit
the largest data value that can be included in a classs
class boundaries
numbers used to separate classes so there are no gaps

lower boundary=lower limit-.5

upper boundary=upper limit+.5
A frequency distribution should have between________ and _________ classes.
between 5 and 20
In a frequency distribution the class width should be... .
an odd number.
Classes in a frequency distribution should be __________.


mutually exclusive
mutually exclusive
When can you omit a class that has a frequency of zero?
only when it is the 1st or last class
Classes in frequency distributions must have equal _________.
How do you obtain the class midpoint?
(lower boundary + upper boundary)
divided by 2
How do you determine class width?
divide the range by the # of classes then round up if there is a decimal remainder
a graph that displays data with contiguous bars of different heights to display data
x axis represents ___________,
y axis represents ___________
in a histogram.
x axis represents class boundaries

y axes represents the frequency
frequency polygon
a graph that displays data with lines that connect to points plotted for frequencies at the midpoints of the classes
X axes represents ___________,
Y axes represents ___________
on a frequency polygon.
x axes represents the midpoint for each class

y axes represents the frequencies
The choice between using the frequency polygon or the histogram to display data should be made by......
the discretion of the researcher.
a graph that represents cumulative frequencies for the classes in a frequency distribution
x axes represents __________,
y axes represents ____________
in an ogive.
x axes represents the class boundaries

y axes represents the cumulative frequencies
relative frequency graph
graphs using proportions rather than raw data
How do you convert a frequency into a proportion or relative frequency?
divide the frequency of each class by the total of the frequencies
bell shaped distribution
uniform with one peak at the middle
uniform distribution
rectangular shaped
right skewed distribution
(tail to right)
left skewed distribution
(tail to left)
bimodal distribution
two "peaks"
U-shaped distribution
U (self explanatory)
pareto chart
used to represent non-numerical categorical variable
x axes represents ___________,
y axes represents ___________
on a pareto chart.
x axes represents categories
y axes represents frequencies
For a pie graph, how do you convert a frequency to a percentage?
f = frequency
n = sum of frequencies