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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the science of conducting studies to collect, organize, summarize, analyze and draw conclusions from data
a characteristic or attribute that can assume different values
the values that variables can assume
random variables
variables whose values are determined by chance
data set
a collection of data values
datum/ data value
each value in a data set
descriptive statistics
describes the situation

consists of collection, organization,summarization and presentation of data
inferential statistics
makes inferences from samples to populations

generalizing, performing estimations & hypothesis testing, determining variable relationships, making predictions
the chance of an event occurring
a group selected from a population
all subjects being studied
qualitative variables
can be placed into distinct categories

ex; gender,location, preference
quantitative variables
numerical and can be ordered

subgroups; discrete
discrete variables
a type of quantitative variable

assumes values can be counted
continuous variables
a type of quantitative variable

can assume all values between two specific values

are obtained by measuring
four common types of measurement scales
nominal level of measurement
classifies data into mutually exclusive (non-overlapping), exhaustive categories

no order or ranking can be imposed

ex; gender, eye color, nationality
ordinal level of measurement
classifies data into categories that can be ranked

precise differences between ranks do not exist

ex;letter grade, place judgment, quality rating scale
interval level of measurement
ranks data
precise differences do exist
no meaningful zero

ex; SAT score, IQ, Temperature
ratio level of measurement
ranks data
precise differences exist
there is a true zero

ex; height, weight, time, salary, age
three common methods of surveying
mailed questionnaire
personal interview
four basic methods of sampling
cluster sampling
How are random samples selected?
chance methods or random numbers
How are systematic samples obtained?
by numbering each subject of the population and selecting every kth subject
How are cluster samples obtained?
by using smaller intact groups within a larger population
How are stratified samples obtained?
by dividing the population into groups according to a characteristic important to the study and taking samples from each group.
What is a convenience sample?
subjects that are convenient
independent variable
is manipulated by the researcher

"explanatory variable"
dependent variable
the outcome variable
treatment group
the group receiving instruction or treatment
control group
the group receiving no special treatment or instruction
confounding variable
outside influences
ambiguous averages
choosing mean, mode, median or midrange as best supports the claim
changing the subject
expressing findings in different ways to support claim
detached statistics
no comparison is made
implied connections
an attempt to apply connections between variable that may not exist
misleading graphs
inappropriately drawn graphs that misrepresent data