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### 37 Cards in this Set

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 Statistics the science of conducting studies to collect, organize, summarize, analyze and draw conclusions from data variable a characteristic or attribute that can assume different values data the values that variables can assume random variables variables whose values are determined by chance data set a collection of data values datum/ data value each value in a data set descriptive statistics describes the situation consists of collection, organization,summarization and presentation of data inferential statistics makes inferences from samples to populations generalizing, performing estimations & hypothesis testing, determining variable relationships, making predictions probability the chance of an event occurring sample a group selected from a population population all subjects being studied qualitative variables can be placed into distinct categories ex; gender,location, preference quantitative variables numerical and can be ordered subgroups; discrete continuous discrete variables a type of quantitative variable assumes values can be counted continuous variables a type of quantitative variable can assume all values between two specific values are obtained by measuring four common types of measurement scales nominal ordinal interval ratio nominal level of measurement classifies data into mutually exclusive (non-overlapping), exhaustive categories no order or ranking can be imposed ex; gender, eye color, nationality ordinal level of measurement classifies data into categories that can be ranked precise differences between ranks do not exist ex;letter grade, place judgment, quality rating scale interval level of measurement ranks data precise differences do exist no meaningful zero ex; SAT score, IQ, Temperature ratio level of measurement ranks data precise differences exist there is a true zero ex; height, weight, time, salary, age three common methods of surveying telephone mailed questionnaire personal interview four basic methods of sampling random systematic stratified cluster sampling How are random samples selected? chance methods or random numbers How are systematic samples obtained? by numbering each subject of the population and selecting every kth subject How are cluster samples obtained? by using smaller intact groups within a larger population How are stratified samples obtained? by dividing the population into groups according to a characteristic important to the study and taking samples from each group. What is a convenience sample? subjects that are convenient independent variable is manipulated by the researcher "explanatory variable" dependent variable the outcome variable treatment group the group receiving instruction or treatment control group the group receiving no special treatment or instruction confounding variable outside influences ambiguous averages choosing mean, mode, median or midrange as best supports the claim changing the subject expressing findings in different ways to support claim detached statistics no comparison is made implied connections an attempt to apply connections between variable that may not exist misleading graphs inappropriately drawn graphs that misrepresent data