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24 Cards in this Set

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The difficulty people have adjusting to a new culture that differs markedly from their own
Culture Shock
When one makes adjustements about other cultures based on the customs and values of one's own.
Ethnocentrism
Recognizing cultures must be understood on their own terms before valid comparisons can be made
Culture relativism
All the things humans make and use, from small hand-held tools to skyscrapers
Material culture
The totality of knowledge, beliefs, values, and rules for appropriate behavior
Culture
Agreed upon rules of behavior shared within a culture that prescribe the limits of acceptable behavior
Norms
Strongly held norms that usually have a moral connotation and are based on central values of the culture
Mores
The expectations of what people should do under perfect conditions
ideal norms
A culture's general orientation toward life, encompassing what is good, bad, desirable, and undesirable
Values
Anything reresenting something else, carrying a particular meaning recognized by a member of a culture
Symbol
The phenomena through which new patterns of behavior emerge even though they conflict with traditional values.
Cultural lag
Established or standardized rituals marking major life transitions
Rites of passage
The prohibition of a specific action
Taboo
Models of patterns that have developed in all cultures to resolve basic common societal problems
Cultural Universals
Norms that permit a wide degree of individual interpretation as long as certain limits are not overstepped
Folkways
Discovered that chimpanzees living in nature use and construct tools.
Jane van Lawick-Goodall
Argued that the language a person uses determines his or her perception of reality
Sapir and Whorf
Developed the concept of cultural lag to describe the phenomenon through which new patterns of behavior may emerge, even though they conflict with traditional values
William F. Ogburn
Harvard professor who argues that the "Clash of Civilizations" between Western and Islamic cultures will be a major source of future international conflict
Samuel P. Huntington
Believes the United States has uniques cultural values which set it apart from the rest of the world, although those values can produce both positive and negative outcome
Seymour and Martin Lipset
Anthropologist who, while studying the Yanomama, encountered severe conflict while trying not to interfere in their culture behaviors which ran very counter to its values
Kenneth Good
Researchers who reached the conclusion that Southerns and Northerners have different values about the appropriate use of viloence in those areas linked to notions of honor and respect
Nisbett and Cohen
Anthropologist whose field work in the Phillipines allowed her to observe and compare cultural differences in responses to death
Mary Catherine Bateson
Conducted the first and most widely known experiment in ape language in 1966 with a chimpanzee named Washoe
Allen and Beatrix Gardner