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37 Cards in this Set

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if two atoms have the same stomic numbe, they are the same element and have the same ___
inherit properties
atoms of element with a different number of neutrons
isotope
___ emit energy and or subparticles
radioactive isotopes
radioactive isotopes spontanously decay into ___
elements of a lower atomic number
refers to amount of time necessary to decay half f the atoms of given sample
half-life
isotopes of ___ are used to date biological samples
carbon
loss of an electron
oxidation
gain of an electron
reduction
there are ___ naturally occuring elements
92
if inert atoms do not have outer level filled, then the atom is unstable
octet rule
bond formed by weak electrical attraction between H atoms on different molecules
hydrogen bond
weak ionic bonds are ___
easily disolved
what is the function of chemical reactions?
break chemical bonds
chemical reactions are influenced by ___
-temperature
-concentration of reactants and products
-catalysts
substance that increases rate of reaction
catalysts
biologically important catalysts
enzymes
a stable atom has ___
no electrical charge
the most astounding property of water is ___
its ability to form weak chemical associations
in a water molecule, the atoms are connected by a ___ bond
covalent
in water, the oxygen atom is ___ than hygrogen
more electronegative
water is ___ (has a distinct charge on each end)
polar
water clings to ___ molecules
polar
the attraction of water to other water molecules
cohesion
the attraction of molecules other than water to water
adhesion
responsible for suface tension on water
cohesion
water is ahesive to any substance with which it can form ___
hygrogen bonds
the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost by one gram of a substance to change its temperature by 1 degree Celsius
specific heat
the heat required to vaporize one mole of a substance at its boiling point under standard pressure
heat of vaporization
water has a high ___ and ___
specific heat, heat of vaporization
water is a powerful ___
solvent
attracted to water
hydrophilic
repelled by water
hydrophobic
the tendency of nonpolar molecules to aggregate in water
hydrophobic exclusion
the process of spontaneous ion formation
ionization
pH measures ___
H+ Ion concentration
On the pH scale:
>7 is ___
=7 is ___
<7 is ___
acidic, neutral, basic
because the pH scale is ___, a difference of 1 in pH is ___ the H+ ion concentration
logarithmic, 10x