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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the framework of biological molecules consists of carbon bounded to ___
carbon or other atoms
biological molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen are ___
hydrocarbons
___ bonds store considerable energy
covalent
specific groups of atoms attached to carbon backbone; retain definite chemical properties
functional groups
categories of macromolecules
proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, carbohydrates
long molecules built by linking together smaller, similar subunits
polymers
molecules are often ___
polymers
removes -OH and H during synthesis of a new molecule
dehydration synthesis
breaks a covalent bond by adding -OH and H
hydrolysis
functions of proteins
Defense, Regulation, Enzyme catalysis, Support, Storage, Transport, Motion
DRESS The Maid
___ contain an amino group(___), a carboxyl(___) group, and a hydrogen atom all banded to a single carbon atom
amino acids, -NH_2_, -COOH
symbol of the interchangable group for amino acids
R
bond that links two amino acids
peptide bond
a molecular chain of amino acids
polypeptide
a protein is composed of one or more polypeptides linked by ___
peptide bonds
a protein's function is determined by its ___
shape
weak attractions between atoms due to oppositely polarized electron clouds
Van der Waals attractions
levels of protein structure
primary, secondary, motifs, tertiary, domains, quarternary
protein's specific amino acid sequence; permits great diversity
primary structure
folding of amino acid chains
Ex: B pleated sheet, helix
secondary structure
folds or creases (combines secondary structures)
motifs
final folded shape of globular pattern (combines motifs)
tertiary structure
functional units made of tertiary structures
domains
connects the domains of a protein
polypeptide chain
forms when two polpeptide chains associate to form a protein
(subunit arrangement)
quarternary
special proteins which help new proteins fold correctly
(deficiencies may play a role in certain diseases)
chaperone proteins
the process of changing a protein's shape or unfolding
denaturation
after denaturing, a protein is considered ___
biologically inactive
encodes info used to assemble proteins
DNA-deoxyribonucleic acid
reads DNA-encoded info to direct protein synthesis
RNA-rybonucleic acid
nucleic acids are composed of long polymers of repeating subunits, ___
nucleotides
DNA's structure
-double stranded molecules that form a double helix
-complementary base pairing connected by hydrogen bonding
RNA's structure
-exists as a single strand
-replaces dioxyribose with ribose (D->R)
-replaces thymine with uracil (T->U)
loosely defined as groups of molecules that are insoluble in water
Ex: fats/oils
lipids
form the core of all biological membranes
phospholipids
3 subunits of phospholipids that form a bilayer in water - the structure of cell membranes
glycerol, fatty acids, phosphate group
three carbon alcohol
glycerol
long chains of -CH_2_
fatty acids
consist of a glycerol molecule w/three attatched fatty acids
fats
trigleride/triglycerol
all internal carbon atoms in fat are bonded to at least two H atoms
saturated fat
more than one double bond in a fat
unsaturated fat
fats store ___ energy than carbs
more
animal fats are ___
plant fats are ___
saturated
unsaturated
excess carbs lead to ___
conversion into starch, glycogen, or fats for future uses
molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio
carbohydrates
simple sugars (3 carbs, usually 6)
monosaccharides
two monosaccharides joined by a covalent bond
disaccharides
macromolecules made of monosaccharide subunits
polysaccharides
different forms of the same substance (atoms rearranged to make different molecules)
isomers
humans transfer ___ as a simple monosaccharide to circulate blood
glucose
when glucose combines with fructose, they form a ___, used to transport glucose in plants
disaccharide, sucrose (table sugar)
plant polysaccharides formed from glucose used for storing metabolic energy
starches
animal form of starch
glycogen
structural carb for plants
-alpha/beta forms make a ring
cellulose
modified form of cellulose for arthropods/fungi
chitin