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13 Cards in this Set

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astigmatism
defective curvature of the cornea or lens of the eye.
hyperopia (hypermetropia)
Farsightedness; the eye in this condition is too short or the refractive power of the lens is too weak.
myopia
Nearsightedness; the eyeball is too long or the refractive power of the lens so strong that the light rays do not properly focuson the regina. The image perceived is blurred because the light rays are focused in front of the retina.
presbyopia
Impairment of vision as a result of old age. With increasing age, loss of elasticity of the ciliary body impairs its ability to adjust the lens for accommodation to near vision.
cataract
Clouding of the lens, causing decreased vision. A cataract is a type of degenerative eye disease (protein in the lens aggregates and clouds vision) and is linked to the process of aging (senile cataracts).
chalazion
Small, hard, cystic mass (granuloma) on the eyelid; formed as a result of chronic inflammation of a sebaceous gland (meilbomian gland) along the marge of the eyelid.
diabetic retinopathy
Retinal effects of diabetes mellitus include microaneurysms, hemorrhages, dilation of retinal veins, and neovascularization (new blood vessels form the retina)Edema (macular edema) occurs as fluid leaks from blood vessels into the retina and vision is blurred. Exudates (fluid leaking from the blood) appear in the retina as yellow-white spot.
glaucoma
Increased intracular pressure results in damage to the retina and optic nerve with loss of vision. Intraocular pressure is elevated because of the inability of squeous humor to drain from the eye and enter the bloodstream. Normally, aqueous humor is formed by the ciliary body, flows into the anterior chamber, and leaves the eye at the angle where the cornea and the iris meet. If fluid cannot leave or too much fluid is produced, pressure builds up in the anterior chamber.
hordeolum (stye or sty)
Localized, purulent, inflammatory staphylococcal infection of a sebaceous gland in the eyelid.
macular degeneration
Progressive damage to the macula of the retina. This is one of the leading causes of blindness in the elderly. It causes severe loss of central vision. Peripheral vision (using the part of the retina that is outside the macular region) is retained.
nystagmus
Repetitive rhythmic movements of one or both eyes. Brain tumors or diseases of the inner ear may cause nystagmus. This is normal in newborns.
retinal detachment
Two layers of the retina separate from each other. Patients often see bright flashes of light (photopsia and then later notice a shadow or "curtain" falling across the field of vision. Floaters are black spots, usually composed of vitreous clumps that detach from the retina.
strabismus
Abnormal deviation of the eye. A failure of the eyes to look in the same direction because of weakness of a muscle controlling the position of one eye. Different forms include: esotropia (one eye turns inward; cross-eyed), exotropia (Ione eye turns outward; wall-eyed), hypertropia (upward deviation of one eye), and hypotropia (downward deviation of one eye).