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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the anti-ribosomal antibiotics?
buy AT 30S, CELL at 50S: Aminoglycosides, Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol, Erythromycin, Linezolid, cLindamycin
Which anti-ribosomal drug cannot be absorbed orally?
What are the adverse effects of chloramphenicol?
2 types of bone marrow depression and "gray baby syndrome"
What are the clinical uses of chloramphenicol?
1. bacterial meningitis when cause unknown and patient can't tolerate penicillins; 2. young kids and pregnant women with Rocky Mountain spotted fever who can't be treated with tetracycline
Where is chloramphenicol widely used?
3rd world countries because of the broad spectrum coverage
What makes chloramphenicol unique?
it's the "chlorine" that kills all (almost) all germs; gram +, gram -, and even anaerobes are susceptible (can kill bacteroides fragilis)
What bugs are targeted by clindamycin?
ANAEROBES! and gram +
What is the DOC for penetrating wounds to the abdomen?
clindamycin for the anaerobes and aminoglycosides for the aerobic gram - bacteria
What is the DOC for infections of the female genital tract, esp. after septic abortions?
clindamycin; its oral preparation and vaginal cream are alternatives to metronidazole for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis
What is the key problem with clindamycin?
pseudomembranous colitis caused by clostridium difficile (CLindamycin and CLostridium)
How is pseudomembranous colitis treated?
vancomycin or metronidazole
What are the clinical uses and toxicity of linezolid?
C: new agent to fight resistant gram + bugs; T: headache and GI upset
What are the clinical uses of erythromycin?
community-acquired pneumonias that do NOT require hospitalization: s. pneumoniae, mycoplasma pneumoniae, chlamydia trachomatis; also, gram + bacteria and legionella
What is used in patients with streptococcal and staphylococcal infections who are sensitive to penicillin?
What is the DOC for Legionnaire's disease?
erythromycin ("a wreath" omycin)
What are some side effects from erythromycin?
it's considered a very safe drug! 1. abdominal pain from peristalsis stimulation; 2. rare cholestatic hepatitis (swallow a "wreath")
What are the 4 macrolide antibiotics?
CARE: clarithromycin, azithromycin, roxithromycin, erythromycin
How are the CAR macrolides different from erythromycin?
Show promise in covering severe staph infections, H. influenza, and even some atypical mycobacteria (Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, MAI)
What can be used as an alternative to doxycycline for treatment of chlamydial non-gonococcal urethritis?
Compare tetracycline and doxycycline.
They have the same clinical use, but doxycycline is better absorbed since it doesn't chelate with cations in the diet. IV tetracycline is no longer available.
What are the 4 clinical uses of doxycycline?
Fights things a soldier would get in the "TET offensive": 1. VDs by chlamydia trachomatis; 2. walking pneumonia by mycoplasma pneumoniae; 3. animal and tick-borne diseases caused by brucella and rickettsia; 4. good for acne, too!
Doxycycline's side effects?
1. GI irritation, nausea; 2. phototoxic dermatitis; 3. renal and hepatic toxicity; 4. discolored teeth and depressed bone growth
How are the aminoglycosides often used?
Since they must diffuse across the cell wall, they are used with penicillins
Clinical use of aminoglycosides?
aerobic gram-negative enteric organisms and kills the terrible pseudomonas aeruginosa
What are the 6 aminoglycosides?
"TANNGS": Tobramycin, Amikacin, Neomycin, Netilmicin, Gentamicin, Streptomycin
What is streptomycin?
Oldest aminoglycoside in the family; many bugs are resistant to it.
Use of gentamicin?
A lot of GENeral use in the "GENeral" hospital; most commonly used of the aminoglycosides; combined with penicillins for in-hospital infections. Many bacterias are resistant to it.
Use of tobramycin?
The "COBRA" to fight the Terrible pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Use of amikacin?
Has broadest spectrum of the AGs and is good for hospital-acquired infections.
Use of neomycin?
Broad coverage, but too toxic; good only for skin infections.
Use of netilmicin?
Preoperative coverage before GI surgery.
Side effects of aminoglycosides?
8th cranial nerve toxicity (vertigo, hearing loss); renal toxicity; neuromuscular blockade. To remember, remember "a mean guy" boxing to the head, the kidney, and then a KO.
How is spectinomycin administered?
Intramuscular injection.
What is the clinical use of spectinomycin?
Gonorrhea caused by neisseria gonorrhoeae as an alternative to penicillin and tetracycline (doxycycline) since many strains are resistant to these bugs.
What are 3 ways to treat gonococcal ureathritis?
1. ceftriaxone with doxycycline (to get the chlamydia trachomatis that is often involved); 2. quinolone antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin) with doxycycline; 3. spectinomycin wiht doxycycline.