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40 Cards in this Set

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DNA Ligase I
ligates Okazaki fragments during lagging strand DNA replication
DNA Ligase II
aides with DNA excision repair aid by sealing base excision mutations
DNA Helicase
utilized to separate strands of a DNA double helix
Telomerase
adds specific DNA sequence repeats to the 3'end of DNA strands in the telomere regions
DNA Polymerase I
Removes RNA primer and replaces it with DNA
DNA Polymerase III
major enzyme involved in DNA replication, can only add a nucleotide to the 3' end of a preexisting chain of nucleotides
Topoisomerase
Relieves strain of DNA unwinding
Restriction Enzymes
enzyme that cuts double-stranded DNA.
ALSO called: Endonuclease or Nuclease.
RNA Primase
creates a short RNA primer approximately 10 nucleotides long, so new nucleotides can be added by DNA polymerase
Telomeres
nucleo-protein structures that cap the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Junk DNA consisting of random repeats
DNA Structure
Diribose sugar, Nucleotide base and Phosphate Group
RNA Structure
Ribose sugar, Nucleotide base and Phosphate Group
Pyrimidine
Smaller single ringed nucleotide Thymine, Cytosine in DNA, Uracil in RNA
Purine
Larger two ringed nucleotide
Adenine, Guanine
Adenine-Thymine Bond
DNA - 2 hydrogen bonds
Adenine-Uracil Bond
RNA - 2 hydrogen bonds
Guanine-Cytosine Bond
DNA - 3 hydrogen binds
RNA Primer
Created by RNA primase, allows DNA Polymerase to add nucleotides to 3' end.
Leading Strand
elongates continuously in the 5’ – 3’ Direction
Lagging Strand
elogates with use of Okazaki segments in 3' to 5' direction
Okazaki Fragments
discontinuous fragments of DNA in lagging strand (3' to 5' direction), because multiple RNA primers must be used
Single Strand Binding Proteins
During replication they bind single stranded regions of DNA to prevent premature reannealing to occur
Deoxyribose 1' Carbon
connects to Nitrogenous base
Deoxyribose 3' Carbon
Connects to next nucleotide - This is where DNA Polymerase adds the Nucleotide
Deoxyribose 5' Carbon
Connects to Phosphate group
3' to 5'
Lagging strand
5' to 3'
Leading strand
Thomas Hunt Morgan
Genes are on Chromosomes
Frederick Griffith
Transformation of Bacteria 1928
Oswald Avery
DNA is tranforming agent
1944
Hershey-Chase Experiment
only DNA NOT protein enters target cells of bacteriophage
1952 - Waring Blender
Rosalind Franklin
X-Ray Crystallography of DNA structure
Watson and Crick
Double Helix, structural model of DNA, replication
Irwin Chargaff
A=G
T=C
purines=pyrimidines
Conservative
Each new double helix consists of two new strands
Semi-conservative
Each new double-helix consists of new and old strand
Dispersive
Pieces of DNA are dispersed or melded together to form the new DNA of each strand
Meselson-Stahl Experiment
Use Heavy N-15 and N-14 to test DNA replication, proved semi-conservative, 1 light one medium strand
DNA mismatch repair
Detecting and repairing a nucleotide mismatch in newly synthesized DNA
Nucleotide Excision Repair
repair DNA damage that can occur to bases from a vast variety of sources including chemicals but also ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun