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24 Cards in this Set

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Transformation
A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell
Hershey-Chase experiment
Showed that viruses insert DNA not protein into cells.
Griffith experiment
Non-infectious pneumonia when in the presence of genetic material from infectious pneumonia became infectious.
Watson-Crick
Showed the double helix of DNA
DNA replication is semi conservative
Replication fork
Each end of a bubble where replication of DNA begins
Rate of elongation of strands
500/second in bacteria, and 50/second in human cells.
How does a nucleotide get incorporated into a DNA strand
A nucleoside triphosphate links to the sugar phosphate backbone of growing DNA it loses 2 phosphates as pyrophosphate, catalyzed by DNA polymerase. Hydrolysis of the phosphate groups gives the energy for the reaction.
What does pyrophosphate power
The polymerization reaction.
3` end has
Hydroxyl group on terminal deoxyribose
5` end has
Terminal phosphate on the 5` carbon
Where does DNA polymerase 3 add nucleotides?
Only adds nucleotides to the 3` end, so a new strand can elongate only in the 5` to 3` direction.
Leading strand
Made by DNA polymerase sticking in the replication fork and adding nucleotides to a complementary strand as the fork progresses.
None
Lagging strand
Must work away from replication fork
Helicase
Unwinds DNA
On lagging strand when DNA polymerase 3 reaches the RNA primer on the lagging end what happens
DNA polymerase 1 RNA and replaces it with DNA.
None
DNA ligase
Binds okazaki segments together
DNA replication machine
Proteins that participate in replication form a complex that is stationary most likely attaches to the nuclear matrix. and reels in the DNA
Mismatch repair
Cells use enzymes to fix incorrectly paired nucleotides.
Nucleotide excision repair
Cuts out damaged strand of DNA and resulting gap is filled with nucleotides paired to the undamaged strand.
Nuclease
Cuts out damaged segments of DNA.
Telomere
Repeated nucleotide sequence at the ends of chromosomal DNA of Eukaryotes. There to keep erosion from happening in replication.
Telomerase
Catalyzes the lengthening of telomeres
On lagging strand when DNA polymerase 3 reaches the RNA primer on the lagging end what happens
DNA polymerase 1 replaces it and removes RNA and replaces it with DNA.