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22 Cards in this Set

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A fossil is
A. anything that is very old.
B. any trace of a long-dead organism.
C. any tooth or bone from an animal.
D. the remains of anything that was once living.
B. any trace of a long-dead organism. -A fossil may be the mineralized remains of a long-dead organism, a mold or cast left behind by an organism, or even preserved footprints.
Before the 1600s, most people probably believed that fossils were
A. naturally occurring parts of rocks.
B. the remains of dragons.
C. the remains of ancient and extinct organisms.
D. the remains of demons or spirit creatures.
A. naturally occurring parts of rocks. -Fossils were not widely recognized as the remains of ancient organisms until late in the seventeenth century when Robert Hooke began his careful studies of them.
Why did Robert Hooke believe fossils were once-living organisms?
A. Hooke tested samples of fossils and found that they contained many of the same compounds found in living organisms.
B. Hooke applied relative-dating techniques to fossils and found them to be very old.
C. Hooke examined fossils with a microscope and noticed structures that were too fine and precise to be formed by anything but a living creature.
D. Hooke discovered and catalogued many dead organisms in various stages of fossilization.
C. Hooke examined fossils with a microscope and noticed structures that were too fine and precise to be formed by anything but a living creature. -Hooke was one of the first scientists to examine fossils with a microscope. In 1668, he published his conclusion that fossils are the remains of once-living plants and animals.
Using the law of superposition, a geologist can learn the
A. way an organism died.
B. ancestry or lineage of a fossil.
C. absolute age of a fossil.
D. relative age of a fossil.
D. relative age of a fossil. -Per the law of superposition, wind or water deposits successive layers of rock or soil on top of one another. Therefore, in undisturbed sequences of rock, the top layers are the youngest.
What is meant by the phrase "succession of forms"?
A. Fossils come in many different forms.
B. Many forms of organisms have been successful, while others have not.
C. Species of organisms appear, exist for some time, and then become extinct.
D. Mass extinctions are regular and predictable.
C. Species of organisms appear, exist for some time, and then become extinct. -The fossil record indicates that many species have arisen and then died out over Earth's history. Mass extinctions have occurred several times, probably resulting from drastic global changes.
How did early scientists infer the succession of life-forms?
A. Scientists noticed that a type of fossil may appear in a certain layer of rock and then disappear in a later layer.
B. Scientists noted that living organisms become extinct and inferred that similar processes must have existed in the past.
C. Using biogeography as their guiding principle, scientists were able to piece together the order in which different organisms arose and fell.
D. Using a combination of relative dating and absolute dating, scientists were able to show that organisms arise, exist for a while, and then become extinct.
A. Scientists noticed that a type of fossil may appear in a certain layer of rock and then disappear in a later layer By carefully examining the layers of rock in which certain fossils are found, scientists could estimate what period of time an organism arose and how long it existed before it became extinct.
How does the study of biogeography suggest descent with modification?
A. Observations suggest that organisms change very slowly over time.
B. Observations suggest that organisms arise with slight modifications from similar organisms that once lived in the same region.
C. Observations suggest that modifications in an organism are passed down to other organisms.
D. Observations suggest that one regions organisms are the same as another regions organisms, with modifications.
B. Observations suggest that organisms arise with slight modifications from similar organisms that once lived in the same region. -By comparing living organisms with their ancestral fossils found in the same region, scientists are able to study the changes, or modifications, that occur over time.
The term evolution describes
A. the changes that take place in an individual organism over time.
B. environmental and organismal changes over time.
C. the process by which acquired traits are passed on to offspring.
D. the changes that take place in a population of organisms over time.
D. the changes that take place in a population of organisms over time. -Populations, not individuals, are said to evolve as they change over many generations.
What was the major flaw in Jean Baptiste de Lamarck’s theory of evolution?
A. Lamarck believed that types of organisms change over time.
B. Lamarck believed that acquired traits could be passed on to offspring.
C. Lamarck believed that new types of organisms are modified descendents of older types.
D. Lamarck believed that similar species descended from the same ancestor.
B. Lamarck believed that acquired traits could be passed on to offspring -Acquired traits are not caused by genes but by behavior and experiences. Such traits cannot be passed on to offspring.
Which of the following is not a piece of evidence that led to Charles Darwin’s explanation of how species change over time?
A. Charles Lyell's book that emphasized the principles of uniformitarianism
B. fossils that Darwin collected during his voyage on the Beagle
C. a collection of 13 species of finches from the Galápagos Islands
D. rare plants and animals collected from Central America during his voyage on the Beagle
D. rare plants and animals collected from Central America during his voyage on the Beagle -Darwin did not visit Central America during his five-year voyage on the H.M.S. Beagle.
Which of the following led Darwin to believe that the finches on the Galápagos Islands shared a common ancestor?
A. Despite some physical differences, the finches were overwhelmingly similar to each other.
B. All of the finches were similar to fossil finches Darwin had discovered.
C. The finches were nearly identical to those back in England.
D. Darwin spent enough time on the islands to observe evolutionary changes taking place.
A. Despite some physical differences, the finches were overwhelmingly similar to each other. -With the help of a bird specialist in England, Darwin determined that the birds were indeed different species but so similar in form that they must have evolved from a common ancestor.
Darwin finally published his views on natural selection when
A. he had enough data to prove his hypothesis.
B. he was offered a large sum of money for the publication of his book.
C. another researcher was about to publish similar findings.
D. he learned he was terminally ill and wanted to share his findings before he died.
C. another researcher was about to publish similar findings. -Alfred Wallace had independently arrived at conclusions similar to those of Darwin and was about to reveal his findings. The two works were presented side by side in London.
Which of the following describes Darwin’s theory of descent with modification?
A. Modern organisms arise from recent ancestors that may be very different in form and function.
B. Newer species are the modified descendents of older species.
C. The theory describes how evolution occurs.
D. It is almost exactly the opposite of Lamarck's theory of descent with modification.
B. Newer species are the modified descendents of older species. -This theory helps account for why recent fossils that are found in a particular region appear similar to modern organisms living in the same area.
Which of the following best describes Darwin’s second theory, modification by natural selection?
A. Over time, organisms purposefully acquire traits they need.
B. Through use and effort, organisms can acquire traits that are passed on to their offspring.
C. Organisms with traits favorable for their environment are better able to survive and reproduce. Favorable traits are passed on to their offspring.
D. Organisms with homologous structures are "selected for" and are more likely to survive and reproduce.
C. Organisms with traits favorable for their environment are better able to survive and reproduce. Favorable traits are passed on to their offspring. -The changing environment "selects" the individuals with traits that help them to survive and reproduce. Over time, these traits become more common within the population.
In the theory of natural selection, the term "fitness" refers to
A. the overall health of an organism.
B. the strength or cardiovascular fitness of an organism.
C. how well an individual "fits into" its population.
D. the genetic contribution of an organism to the next generation.
D. the genetic contribution of an organism to the next generation. -Those individuals that are able to reproduce more are able to pass on more of their genetic information to the next generation. They are said to have "high fitness."
Which of the following represents a comparison of homologous structures?
A. the bones of a bat's wing and the bones of a human arm
B. the wings of a bird and the wings of a moth
C. the hairs of a rabbit and the hairs on a plant
D. the pelvic bones of a snake and the leg bones of a whale
A. the bones of a bat's wing and the bones of a human arm -Homologous structures develop from the same embryonic tissue. Such structures originated with a common ancestor and are evidence of an evolutionary relationship.
The human appendix is an example of a(n) ____________ structure.
A. homologous
B. analogous
C. vestigial
D. derived
C. vestigial -A vestigial structure is underdeveloped and serves no apparent function for the organism. Vestigial structures may be developed in extinct ancestors and related, modern organisms.
A structure is homologous when it is compared to a structure of similar embryonic origin on another organism. A structure cannot be homologous without that comparison. A structure is analogous only when compared to a structure similar in function but of different embryonic origin. A structure cannot be analogous without that comparison. Derived structure is not a term used to describe an evolutionary relationship between organisms and their structures.
Which of the following statements about legs and whales is true?
A. None of the whale's ancestors had legs.
B. Ancestral whales had legs, but today's whales no longer have the genes that code for leg formation.
C. Today's whales still have the genes for leg formation, but these genes are normally turned off.
D. Whales have fully formed legs, but these legs are hidden under the skin and fat of the whale's body.
C. Today's whales still have the genes for leg formation, but these genes are normally turned off. -Genes that are carried but no longer expressed are said to be conserved. Occasionally, the genes for leg formation are expressed in whales, and small vestigial legs form. Fossil remains and the rare appearance of vestigial legs on some whales indicate that whale ancestors had legs. The rare appearance of vestigial legs on some whales indicates that the genes for leg formation are still present. Whales no longer have fully formed legs, but in rare cases have partially formed legs.
How can looking at the embryonic development of different species provide evidence of common ancestry?
A. The embryos of all organisms go through the same stages during development.
B. During the development of a mammal, the embryo passes through stages that resemble that of an adult fish, an adult reptile, a bird, and finally a mammal, echoing the evolution of all mammals.
C. Until the final stage of development, all vertebrate embryos are indistinguishable.
D. In early stages of development, all vertebrate embryos are similar.
D. In early stages of development, all vertebrate embryos are similar. Similarities between vertebrate embryos fade as the embryos develop, but the striking similarities of the early embryos are taken as evidence of a common ancestor for all vertebrates. The development of plant and animal embryos is quite different. At no stage does a mammal appear similar to an adult fish, reptile, or bird. In later stages of development, vertebrate embryos are easily distinguished.
How do macromolecules suggest evolutionary relationships between organisms?
A. The more similar proteins are in two different organisms, the more closely related the species are thought to be.
B. Organisms that are evolutionarily more advanced have larger macromolecules than those that are less advanced do.
C. If two organisms both have macromolecules, they are likely to be closely related.
D. Macromolecules led to the premise that "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny."
A. The more similar proteins are in two different organisms, the more closely related the species are thought to be. -For example, the hemoglobin of gorillas and humans differs by only one amino acid. This close connection suggests a relatively recent common ancestor for gorillas and humans. Both "advanced" and "less advanced" organisms create macromolecules of varying sizes. Macromolecules are created by organisms as unrelated as bacteria and elephants. "Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny" is a phrase that suggests that as embryos develop, they repeat their evolutionary history. This concept does not directly concern macromolecules.
The apparent similarity of sharks and dolphins is due to
A. coevolution.
B. convergent evolution.
C. divergent evolution.
D. adaptive radiation.
B. convergent evolution. -Sharks and dolphins are not closely related, but they are similar phenotypically. Their similarities are due to natural selection. Coevolution occurs when two species that live in close association evolve in response to each other, such as a predator and its prey or a herbivore and the plant that it eats. In divergent evolution, two formerly similar organisms evolve into dissimilar forms. The shark and the dolphin are related in a different way. Adaptive radiation is a form of divergent evolution in which many related species evolve from a single ancestral species.
Homologous structures are associated with which of the following patterns of evolution?
A. coevolution
B. convergent evolution
C. divergent evolution
D. none of the above
C. divergent evolution -Divergent evolution can result in homologous structures from a single ancestral structure. For example, the flipper of a penguin and the wing of a flying bird are homologous structures. Coevolution usually occurs in two unrelated but closely associated organisms, such as a parasite and its host. Convergent evolution may lead to analogous structures, but not to homologous structures.