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60 Cards in this Set

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A gain-of-function mutation in a cellular gene, called a proto-oncogene, whose normal function is to promote cellular proliferation or inhibit apoptosis;oncogenes are often associated with tumor progression.
Spindle assembly checkpoint
A mechanism that arrests the cell division cycle until the spindle is properly deployed.
Centrosome Duplication checkpoint
A mechanism that arrests the cell cycle while the centrosome (the spindle-organizing center) remains undivided.
Any mechanism that arrests the cell cycle until one or more essential processes are completed
A eukaryotic gene that functions to promote cellular proliferation or inhibit apoptosis, in which gain-of-function mutations (oncogenes) are associated with cancer progression.
tumor-suppressor gene
A gene that normally controls cell proliferation or that activates the apoptotic pathway, in which loss-of-function mutations are associated with cancer progression.
BAX protein
A tumor-suppressor protein that promotes apoptosis. Loss of function leads to deletions or additions of nucleotides.
Loss of herterozygosity
Loss of the presence of the wildtype allele, or loss of its function, in a heterozygous cell, enabling the phenotype of a recessive mutant allele to be experssed; mechanisms for loss of heterozygosity include chromosome loss, gene conversion, and mutation.
Promoter fusion
Joining of the promoter region of one gene with the protein-coding region of another.
Gene fusion
A new gene created by the joining of DNA from two preexisting genes
Chimeric gene
A gene produced by recombination, chromosome rearrangement, or genetic engineering that is a mosaic of DNA sequences from two or more differente genes.
molecular evolution
A study of how and why the sequences of macromolecules change through time.
molecular symatics
A group of statistical methods for estimating gene trees and often, by inference, the evolutionary relationships among the taxa of which the genes are representative.
A population, species, or other group of organisms of which a protein or nucleic acid sequence, or a set of such sequences, is regarded as representative.
Distance Matrix
A matrix showing the amount of sequence divergence between all possible pairs of a set of protein or nucleic acid sequences.
Neighbor Joining
A method for estimating a gene tree in which pairs of taxa are joined sequentially according to which pair are separated by the shortest distance.
Analysis of multiple data sets formed by ramdom sampling with replacement from an actual data set in order to estimate a degree or confidence in a particular branch or branching pattern in a gene tree.
Molecular clock
A condition in which a protein or nucleic acid molecule has the same probability of change per unit time in every branch of a gene tree.
Selectivly Neutral Mutation
A mutation that has no (or negligible) effects on fitness.
A DNA sequence that is not functional because of one or more mutations but that has a functional conterpart in the same organism; pseudogenes are regarded as mutated forms of ancient gene duplications.
Orthologous genes
Genes that share a common ancestral gene through the process of speciation.
Paralogous genes
Genes that share a common ancestral gene through the process of gene duplication within a species.
Evolutionary change in a gene that results in loss of one or more of its functional or regulatory motifs.
Geneotype frequency
The proportion of memebers of a pop that are of a prescribed genotype
Allele frequency
The relative proportion of all alleles of a gene that are of designated type.
Hardy-Weinberg principle
The genotype frequencies expected with random mating.
Mating between relatives
Polymorphic gene
A gene for which there is more than one relative common allele in a pop
Inbreeding coefficient (F)
A measure of the genetic effects of inbreeding in terms of the proportionate reduction in heterozygosity in an inbred organism compared with the heterozygosity expected with ramdom mating.
Cumulative change in the gentic characteristics of a species through time
Movement of organisms among subpopulations
Natural Selection
The process of evolutionary adaptation in which the genotypes genetically best suited to survive and reproduce in a particular environment give rise to a disproportionate share of the offspring oand so gradually increase the overall ability of the pop to survive and reproduce in that environment.
Random genetic drift
Fluctuation in allele frequency from generation to generation resulting from restricted pop size
Maternal Inheritance
Extranuclear inheritance of a trait through cytoplasmic factors or organelles contributed by the female gamete.
Mitochondrial DNA
Is maternally inherited and shows maternal inheritance (pg. 521-523)
Most recent common ancestor
In a phylogenetic tree, the most recent node that unites a particular subset of sequences, characters, or species.
Multifuctional/complex traits
A multifactorial trait influenced by multiple genetic and environmental factors, each of relatively small effect, and their interactions.
Genetic architecture
Of complex trait, specification of the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the trait, and their interactions.
Quantitative trait
A trait, typically measured on a continuous scale, such as height or weight- that results from the combined action of several or many genes in conjunction with environmental factors
Continuous trait
Trait in which the possible phenotypes have a continuous range from one extreme to other rather than falling into discrete classes.
Categorical trait
A complex trait in which each possible phenotype can be classified into one of a number of discrete categories. aka meristic trait
Threshold trait
A trait with a continuous distributed liability or risk;organisms with a liability greater than a critical value (the threshold) exhibit the phenotype of interest, such as a disorder.
Normal distribution
A symmetrical bell-shaped distribution characterized by the mean and the variance; in a normal distribution, approximately 68% observations within 1 standard dev. 95% within 2.
Genotypic variance
The part of the phenotypic cariance that is attributable to differences in genotype
Environmental variance
The part of the phenotypic variance that is attributable to diff. in environment
Total (phenotypic) variance
Summation of all sources of genetic and environmental variation
Genotype-by-environment Association
condition in which genetic and environmental effects on a trait are not in random combinations.
Genotype-by-environment interaction
Condition in which genetic and environmental effects on a trait are not additive.
Broad-sense heritability
The ratio of genotypic variance to total phenotypic variance.
Artificial selection
Selection imposed by a breeder in which organisms of only certain phenotypes are allowed to breed.
Truncation point
In artifical selection, the value of the phenotype that determines which organisms will be retained for breeding and which will be culled.
Narrow-sence heritabliity
The fraction of the phenotypic variance revealed as resemblance between parents and offspring; technically the ratio of the additive genetic variance to the total phenotypic variance.
Additive effects
Each heterozygous shows a phenotype that is exactally intermediate between the phenotypes of the respective homozygous genotypes and that the effects are also additive across loci
Selection limit
The condition in which a pop no longer responds to artificial selection for a trait
Correlated response
Change in the mean in one trait in a pop accompanying selection for another trait
Inbreeding depression
A phenomenon in which the average value of a quantitative trait in a pop undergoes progressive deterioration as the level of inbreeding increases
The superiority of hybrids over either inbred partent with respect to one or more traits; aka hybrid vigor
Risk, particularly toward a threshold type of quantitative trait.
Quantitative trail locus (QTL)
A locus segregating for alleles that have diff. measureable effects on the expression of a quantitative trait
Candidate gene
A gene proposed to be involved in the genetic determination of a trait because of the role of the gene product in the cell or organism.