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34 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is motivation?
*internal and external factors that influence behavior
*a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
What is a motivational drive (state)? Give an example.
*Internal motivation
*May change over time
*Orients an individul to specific goals (physiological usually)

Ex: Hunger
What are incentives? Give an example.
*Reinforcers/goals
*External motivation

Ex: Getting good grades
Descrive the Drive-Reduction theory.
When an organism is not at homeostasis, an aroused state of tension motivates that organism to satisfy the need.
What is the difference between regulatory and nonregulatory drives?
*Regulatory: satisfy physiological needs (internal drives)

Nonregultory: satisfy external drives
Describe the process of drive reduction.
1) Homeostasis
==> balance disturbed
2) Biological need
==> Need gives drive
3) Drive (internal state of tension)
==> Organism motivated to satisfy need
4) Goal directed behavior
==> Drive reduced
5) Need satisfied
==> Balance restored

*NOTE: this is a never ending cycle (circle graph)
What is homeostasis?
the constncy of INTERNAL conditions that the body must maiintian
Give an example of a drive that is NOT explained by homeostasis.
A person playing a sport on JV was the best of the group. When he or she moved up to Varsity, they didn't do as well, causing tension and motivating them to practice.
What is facial feedback?
When expression on our faces (facial muscles) send messages to the brain indicating the emotion felt.

*NOTE: facial expressions are a universal language
What are the 6 universal emotions (primary/inborn)?
1) Anger
2) Fear
3) Disgust
4) Happiness
5) Sadness
6) Pride
What are display rules? How are they related to emotion work?
Display rules: set of general rules on how, where, and when a person may express or suppress certain emotions

*Emotionl work: expressing emotions not felt

==> A sad person may smile at wedding because that is the norm
What is the set-point theory?
An individual has a certain weight range that the body maintains through metabolism and such.
What is TAT? What kind of test is it?
*Thematic Apperception Test
*Requires test-takers to make up a story about a set of ambiguous pictures (person will reveal unconscious feelings)
*Projective test
What is the difference between approach and avoidance goals?
Approach: Wanting to achieve something (i.e- learn to scuba dive)

Avoidance: wanting to avoid an unwanted situation (i.e- embarrassment in public)
What is the self-fufilling prophecy?
An expectation that comes true because of the tendency of the person holding it to ct in wys that bring it about MEANING if i believe it will happen, it will happen.
What are two strong predictors of whom people will love?
1) Proximity
2) Similarity
What is the difference between mastery (learning) goals and performance goals?
Mastery- focuses on learning the task well

Performance- focuses on learning the tsk well enough to recieve praise from others
What are the 3 biological theories?
1) Instinct (inborn)
2) Drive (internal tensions to satisfy needs)
3) Arousal (external factor of arousal)
What is "rest and digest?"
Slowing down after moment of high arousal to reduce nonessential functions to repair the body
What is Yerkes-Dodson Law?
Analyzes the amount of arousal vs the quality of performance for easy, moderate and difficult tasks.
For what degree of difficulty is high arousal best? Give an example.
*Easy tasks

Ex: A tennis pro hitting a forehand
What degree of difficulty is best for low arousal? Give an example.
* Very difficult tasks

Ex: Working on a VERYYYY difficult brain teaser
What degree of difficulty is best for moderate arousal? Give an example.
*Moderately difficult tasks

Ex: Working on a homework assignment on a new lesson topic disscussed during class.
Two aspects does the psychosocial theory include?
1) Incentive
2) Cognitive
What is the incentive aspect of a person doing their homework?
(External pull)

To get good grades
What is the cognitive aspect of a person doing their homework?
(External pull)

1) Expectations- meet and please the teacher's expectations
2) Attributes- to furthur your knowledge and enhance your skills and abilities
What is the biopsychosocial theory related to?
Maslow's heirarchy of needs
Wht is the order of Maslow's Hierarchy of needs?
1) Basic needs (physiological)
2) Safety
3) Belonging
4) Esteem
5) Self- Actualization
Explain one reason why a person may never reach self-actualization.
* Limited by the resources available

*New goals turn out to be more important (ex: Raising family is more important then getting a degree)
What is emotion?
response of the whole organism
What is the common-sense theory?
Stimulus ==> Perception ==> Emotion ==> Bodily Arousal
What is the Jame's Peripheral Feedback Theory?
Stimulus ==> Perception ==> Bodily Arousal ==> Emotion
What is the Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion?
Perception of stimulus ==> Both an emotion and bodily arousal at the same time
What is the Schacter Cognition-Plus-Feedback Theory?
Stimulus ==> Perception ==> Either bodily arousal or emotion ==> whichever type is left btw arousal and emotion ==> percieves as more or less ==> change in degree of either bodily arousal or emotion ==> change in degree of which ever factor is left... (continuous until stimulus is nuetral)