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31 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
adenine
a nitrogen-containing base that is a component of a nucleotide
anticodon
a region of tRNA consisting of three bases complementary to the
codon of mRNA
base-pairing rule
the rule stating that in DNA, cytosine pairs with guanine
and adenine pairs with thymine and in RNA, adenine pairs with uracil
codon
a group of three sequential nitrogen bases of an mRNA molecule
complimentary base pairs
the name given to a set of two proteins that
normally pair with one another according to the base-pair rule
cytosine
a nitrogen-containing base; a pyrimidine of DNA and RNA
deoxyribose
the sugar molecule in a DNA nucleotide
DNA polymerase
an enzyme that binds to the separated strands of DNA and
assembles each strand’s complement in replication
double helix
the shape of a DNA strand
genetic code
triplets of nucleotides in mRNA that determine the sequence of
amino acids in protein
guanine
a nitrogen-containing base that is a component of a nucleotide
helicase
an enzyme that separates DNA strands before replication
messenger RNA (mRNA)
the type of RNA that carries genetic information
from the nucleus to the ribosomes
mutation
a change in DNA
nitrogen-containing base
a DNA nucleotide containing nitrogen, a sugar
molecule, and a phosphate group
promoter
a nucleotide sequence on a DNA molecule that, when attached to an
RNA polymerase molecule, will initiate transcription of a specific structural
gene
protein synthesis
the formation of proteins using information coded on DNA
and carried by RNA
purine
an organic molecule that has a double ring of carbon and nitrogen
atoms
pyrimidine
an organic molecule that has a single ring of carbon and nitrogen
atoms
replication
the process by which DNA copies itself during interphase
ribose
the five-carbon sugar in RNA
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
the type of RNA found in a ribosome
RNA polymerase
the primary transcription enzyme
start codon
the codon AUG which engages a ribosome to start translating an
mRNA molecule
stop codon
causes the ribosome to stop translating mRNA; UAA, UAG,
UGA
termination signal
a specific sequence of nucleotides that marks the end of a
gene in eukaryotes
thymine
a nitrogen-containing base, one component of a nucleotide
transcription
the process in which RNA is made from DNA
transfer RNA (tRNA)
the type of RNA that carries amino acids from the
cytoplasm to the ribosomes
translation
the process of converting the genetic code in RNA into the amino
acid sequence that makes up a protein
uracil
a nitrogen-containing base found in RNA