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36 Cards in this Set

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Adenine & Guanine are examples of ______?
Purines
Which of the following is 1 of the 4 nitrogen containing bases in DNA? A)Helicase; B)Uracil; C)Codon; D) Adenine; E)Condom
D) Adenine
Thymine & Cytosine are examples of _______?
Pyrimidines
The primary function of DNA in organisms is to...
store & transmit the genentic information that tells cells which proteins to make & when to make them.
Is DNA an organic compound?
Yah
The shape the DNA is in is called a _________.
Double Helix.
What is the responsibility of RNA.
The movement of genetic information from the DNA in the nucleus to the site of protein synthesis in the cytosol.
What does DNA stand for?
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
What does RNA stand for?
Ribonucleic Acid
What is the sugar molecule of every RNA nucleotide?
Ribose
What is the responsibility of RNA.
The movement of genetic information from the DNA in the nucleus to the site of protein synthesis in the cytosol.
What is the role of mRNA?
To carry gentic informations from the DNA in the nucleus to the cytosol of a Eukaryotic Cell.
What does mRNA consist of?
RNA nucleotides in the form of a single, un-coiled chain.
The primary function of RNA is to
A. serve as a backup for DNA.
B. take genetic information from the DNA to the cytosol.
C. direct the replication of DNA.
D. correct any mistakes in the DNA.
B. take genetic information from the DNA to the cytosol.- The genetic information that is needed for making proteins is stored as DNA in the nucleus. RNA transfers that information to the cytosol, where proteins are made.
Which of the following statements about DNA and RNA nucleotides is true?
A. They both contain the ribose sugar.
B. They both contain the bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine.
C. They are both commonly found in a double-helix form.
D. They both consist of a sugar, a base, and a phosphate group.
D. They both consist of a sugar, a base, and a phosphate group. -The basic structures of DNA and RNA nucleotides are very similar.
Which of the following nucleotide sequences is from an RNA molecule?
A. A-A-G-C-C-G-U-C
B. A-A-T-T-G-C-A-T
C. G-G-C-G-A-A-A-T
D. This sequence is too short to determine the answer.
A. A-A-G-C-C-G-U-C -In RNA, the four bases are adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil. Thymine, commonly found in DNA, is usually absent in RNA.
Which of the following types of RNA is most abundant within the cell?
A. mRNA
B. tRNA
C. rRNA
D. All three types of RNA are found in equal abundance within the cell.
C. rRNA -rRNA, or ribosomal RNA, is found in a globular form. The rRNA, along with certain proteins, make up the ribosomes where proteins are made.
5. Which of the following types of RNA is responsible for carrying genetic information from the nucleus to the cytosol?
A. mRNA
B. tRNA
C. rRNA
D. all of the above
A. mRNA -The single, uncoiled chain of mRNA is well suited for its role as messenger. The other types of RNA are folded in such a way that much of the information is inaccessible.
6. Which of the following types of RNA consists of about 80 RNA nucleotides folded into a hairpin shape?
A. mRNA
B. tRNA
C. rRNA
D. Both tRNA and rRNA can be found in this form.
B. tRNA -The small, folded structure of tRNA is well suited for bonding to both amino acids and messenger RNA.
7. Which of the following is not part of the process of transcription?
A. Promoters bring DNA out of the nucleus to the cytosol where RNA polymerase begins making copies of specific sequences of DNA.
B. The DNA molecule separates in the region of a promoter.
C. RNA polymerase constructs an RNA molecule by linking RNA nucleotides to the DNA template.
D. Transcription continues until the polymerase reaches the sequence of DNA that is known as the termination signal.
A. Promoters bring DNA out of the nucleus to the cytosol where RNA polymerase begins making copies of specific sequences of DNA. -Transcription occurs only in the nucleus. Promoters are sequences of DNA nucleotides that mark the beginning of an area that is to be transcribed.
1. The principle role of DNA is to
A. make proteins.
B. maintain the structure of the cell.
C. store and transmit genetic information.
D. synthesize nucleotides.
C. store and transmit genetic information -DNA contains the information that tells cells which proteins to make and when to make them. DNA is more of a "how-to" library for protein synthesis than an actual protein-building factory.
2. Which of the following is not one of the three parts of a DNA nucleotide?
A. a lipid bilayer
B. a sugar molecule
C. a nitrogen-containing base
D. a phosphate group
A. a lipid bilayer -A lipid bilayer is not part of the DNA structure.
3. The overall structure of the DNA molecule is most like a
A. step ladder.
B. staircase.
C. spiral staircase.
D. rope ladder.
C. spiral staircase. -The alternating sugar and phosphate molecules form the outer, twisting "backbone" of the structure, and base pairs form the "steps" in the middle of the structure.
4. ____________ bonds hold the base pairs together at the center of the helix.
A. Covalent
B. Ionic
C. Nucleic
D. Hydrogen
D. Hydrogen -Hydrogen bonds hold the two chains of the double helix together. When represented graphically, the hydrogen bonds are usually indicated by dotted lines.
5. Complementary base-pairing rules simply state that
A. like bases complement like bases. For example, adenine pairs with adenine, guanine with guanine, etc.
B. base pairs form between complements. For example, adenine pairs with guanine, and thymine pairs with cytosine.
C. base pairs form between complements. For example, adenine pairs with thymine, and cytosine pairs with guanine.
D. either purine can bond with either complementary pyrimidine. For example, adenine can pair with cytosine or thymine.
C. base pairs form between complements. For example, adenine pairs with thymine, and cytosine pairs with guanine. -The larger adenine pairs with the smaller thymine with two hydrogen bonds. The larger guanine pairs with the smaller cytosine with three hydrogen bonds.
6. Which of the following best explains how complementary base-pairing is involved in DNA replication?
A. Complementary base-pairing allows replication to begin at one end of the molecule and proceed to the other.
B. During replication, two entirely new DNA molecules are produced, each a complement of the other.
C. During replication, old complementary pairs are discarded and replaced with new pairs.
D. By pairing new nucleotides to their complements, the separated DNA chains can serve as templates for two new complete chains.
D. By pairing new nucleotides to their complements, the separated DNA chains can serve as templates for two new complete chains. -Such replication may occur at thousands of sites along the DNA chain simultaneously. This method is both fast and accurate.
7. Which of the following events is not associated with DNA replication?
A. Helicase enzymes separate the two chains of DNA.
B. DNA polymerase brings long sections of new nucleotides to bond with the old DNA chain.
C. The point at which separation between the two chains occurs is known as the replication fork.
D. The new nucleotide chain is joined to the old nucleotide chain with hydrogen bonds.
B. DNA polymerase brings long sections of new nucleotides to bond with the old DNA chain. -DNA polymerase constructs the new nucleotide chain one complementary nucleotide at a time, not long sections at a time.
8. Find the mutated complementary sequence for the nucleotide sequence A-A-T-G-C-C-G.
A. A-A-T-G-C-G-G
B. A-A-T-G-C-C-G
C. T-T-A-C-G-G-C
D. T-T-A-G-G-G-C
D. T-T-A-G-G-G-C -A mutation has occurred at the fourth nucleotide, where guanine has been substituted for cytosine.
The shape of a protein is critical to its function because a protein's shape determines
A. how the amino acids will be used.
B. in which cells it will be used.
C. how long it will be useful.
D. its ability to bind with other molecules.
D. its ability to bind with other molecules. -A protein's shape is determined by the twists and folds of its amino acid sequence. This shape allows it to bind with specific molecules.
Which of the following statements about the genetic code is false?
A. The genetic code is the information needed for making proteins.
B. Every three tRNA nucleotides codes for a specific amino acid.
C. Each combination of three nucleotides is called a codon.
D. The codons are the same for almost all organisms.
B. Every three tRNA nucleotides codes for a specific amino acid. -In mRNA, not tRNA, sequences of three nucleotides code for specific amino acids.
What is the difference between a codon and an anticodon?
A. Codons are the mRNA codes for amino acids. Anticodons are the complements for each codon that are found on the ends of the tRNA molecules.
B. Codons are the tRNA codes for amino acids. Anticodons are the complements for each codon that are found on the ends of the mRNA molecules.
C. Codons code for protein synthesis, and anticodons code for protein digestion.
D. Codons are the RNA nucleotides used for making proteins. Anticodons are the complementary DNA nucleotides that were transcribed.
A. Codons are the mRNA codes for amino acids. Anticodons are the complements for each codon that are found on the ends of the tRNA molecules. -The anticodons on the ends of the tRNA molecules bond with the codons of the mRNA molecule to ensure that the amino acids are assembled in the proper order.
The codon AUG is especially significant because it codes for
A. methionine.
B. "start."
C. "stop."
D. serine.
B. "start." -The codon AUG is the signal that starts the translation process. A tRNA brings the first amino acid to this site, which is always methionine.
Using the information from Table 10-1, identify the tRNA anticodon for the amino acid arginine.
A. CGU
B. GCA
C. GGU
D. ACG
B. GCA -This codon is the complement of the first codon listed for arginine. Four possible codons exist for arginine, which means, in theory, that four possible anticodons exist for arginine.
Which of the following statements about ribosomes is true?
A. They are made entirely of rRNA.
B. They are only found attached to the endoplasmic reticulum.
C. They have three binding sites--one for mRNA and two for tRNA.
D. They are only found floating free in the cytosol.
C. They have three binding sites--one for mRNA and two for tRNA. -The ribosome attaches to the mRNA at the start codon, then moves along as translation progresses. It also binds to each tRNA as it brings the next amino acid to the polypeptide chain.
Which of the following is not a part of the translation process?
A. A ribosome binds to the AUG codon on the mRNA to begin translation.
B. RNA polymerase begins adding amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain.
C. The amino acids brought to the growing chain are held in place by peptide bonds.
D. When the ribosome reaches the stop codon, the translation process is complete.
B. RNA polymerase begins adding amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain. -RNA polymerase is involved in transcription, not translation.
A gene may be described as
A: a sequence of amino acids.
B:special proteins found in chromosomes.
C:a sequence of nucleotides that codes for a specific protein.
D: a sequence of nucleotides that codes for the production of starches and sugars.
A: a sequence of nucleotides that codes for a specific protein.