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37 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Glomular Filtration Rate
Mictuation reflex center recieves signal from stretch receptors in bladder - sends sensory impulse to spinal cord - reflex returns signal to bladder to contract detrusor muscle - Relaxes interal urethral sphincter to void uring.
Mechanism in infants and young children
Periodic treatment of patients with kidney failure that adds and/or extracts substances from blood as neccessay artifially doing steps 1, 2, and 3.
Micturition center in pons receives signals from stretch receptors when urine - 200ml - relaxes internal urthral sphincter 0-muscle remains contracted until we decide it is appopriate to urinate and relax schincter - external shhincter relaxes, detrusor contracts to void urine (will void involutarily if overfilled).
Mechanism in Older Children and Adults
Converts blood plasma to urine in 3 steps.
Urine Formation
Voiding urine - controlled by micturition reflex. Stretch receptors cause pain and urgency signals as bladder fills.
Periodic treatment of patients with kidney failure that adds and/or extracts substances from blood as neccessay artifially doing steps 1, 2, and 3.
Holds urine on bladder.
Internal Urethral sphincter
Into peritubular capillaries from the PCT. Concentrates urine by conserving water.
Step 2
Efferent Arterioles.(In Bowman's Capsule)
Glomerular Capillaries
Blood filtered by capillaries & Prodocytes.
Glomerula Filtration - Step 1
Duct that leads away from glomerular capsule where all absorption & secretion occurs. Divided into 4 regions and ends at pyramids.
Renal Tubule
Skeletal muscle for voluntary control.
External urethal sphincter
Wastes made during metabolic processes (not food waste in feces) - Co2 eliminated by respiratory system and urinary system.
Metabolic Wastes
Renal tubules pull more chemicals from peritubular capillaries for waste removal and acid-base balance.
Tubular Secretion
Leads to accumulation of N-Waste in blood which can lead to uremia sysndrome (diarrhea, vomiting, arrhythmia, dyspnea, convulsions, death).
Renal Failure
Urine is episodic - in adults, occurs when we allow it.
Urine Storage & Elimination
Functional units of the urinary system.
PH, Clor, Odor, Volume, Diuretics
Characteristics of Urine.
Nitrogen containing waste eliminated by urinary system.
Nitrogen Waste
Aldosterone, ANF, ADH
Hormones that control the rate of reabsorption
Glomerula Capsule-PCT- Nephron Loop-DCT-CD-Minor Calyx-Major Calyx-Renal Pelvic-Ureter-Urinary Bladder-Urethra-Exterior of Body
Glomerular Filtrate Pathway
Two, retroperitoneal, muscular tubes from renal pervis to bladder.
1. Proximal Convoluted Tubule(PCT)
2.Nephron Loop(Loop of Henle)
3.Distal Convoluted Tubule(DCT)
4.Collecting Ducts(CD)
4 Regions of Renal Tubule
One, muscular sac, floor of pelvic cavity, lined with transitional apithelium. 700-800 ml urine max capactiy.
Urinary Bladder
2 Kidneys, 2 Ureters, 1 Urinary Bladder, and 1 Urethra.
Urinary System
One, converys urine from bladder to the exterior of the body.
DCT - Afferent Arteriole - Efferent Arteriold - Specialized structure that allow nephrons to monitor their own performance. Secret renin to compensate for changes in BP.
Justaglomerular Apparatus
Water-Salt balance.
Renal Veins - inf. vena cava
(around tubules)
Peritubular Capillaries
3 layers of connective tissue - Kidneys
1.Renal Fascia
3.Renal Capsule
3 Layers of Connective Tissue - Kidney
Produce the urine and drain into the collecting ducts.
Afferent aritcles suppy nephron.
Nephronss-Collecting ducts of pyramids-minor calyx-major calyx-renal pelvis-ureters-bladder-urethra-outside body
Urine Pathway
Glomerulus (specialized capillaries) inside Bowman's Capsule 2 layers produce the filtrate from blood.
Renal Corpuscle
2-3 converge to empty urine into renal pelvis (center open space)
Major Calyx
Lobes extending out into cortex (Wide base faces outward and narrow end faces inward) to join.
Renal Pyramids
Collects urine from pyramid and drains into Major Calyx.
Minor Calyx