Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/203

Click to flip

203 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
prote/o
protein
sial/o
saliva, salivary
steat/o
fat
or/o
mouth
palat/o
palate
pancreat/o
pancreas
proct/o
anus and rectum
pylor/o
pyloric sphincter
rect/o
rectum
sialaden/o
salivary gland
sigmoid/o
sigmoid colon
labi/o
lip
lapar/o
abdomen
mandibul/o
lower jaw; mandible
odont/o
tooth
faci/o
face
gastr/o
stomach
gingiv/o
gum
ile/o
ileum
jejun/o
jejunum
esaphag/o
esophagus
parenteral
pertaining to other than the intestines
mesentery
membranes that hold the intestines in place.
append/o
appendix
appendic/o
appendix
bucc/o
cheek
cec/o
cecum
celi/o
belly, abdomen
cheil/o
up
cholecyst/o
gallbladder
choledoch/o
common bile duct
col/o
colon; large intestine
colon/o
colon
dent/i
tooth
duoden/o
duodenum
an/o
anus
villi
microscopic projections in the walls of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream.
uvula
soft tissue hanging from the soft palate into the mouth.
triglycerides
large fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acid and one part glycerol.
stomach
-muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus.

-made of three parts:
1. fundus (proximal section)
2. body (middle section)
3. antrum (distal section)
sphincter
ring of muscle fibers that consticts a passage or closes a natural opening.
sigmoid colon
lower part of the colon
salivary glands
1. Parotid
2. Sublingual
3. Submandibular
saliva
digestive fluid produced by salivary glands.
rugae
ridges on the hard palate, and the wall of the stomach
rectum
last section of the colon.
pyloric sphincter
ring of muscle fibers at the distal region of the stomach where it joins the duodenum
pulp
soft tissue within a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels.
protease
enzymes that digest protein.
portal vein
large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines.
pharynx
throat; the common passageway for food from the mouth and air from the nose.
peristalsis
rhythm-like contractions of the tubes of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and other tubular structures.
parotid gland
salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear.
papillae
-small elevations of the tongue.

-papilla is a nipple like elevation.
pancreas
organ under the stomach that produces insulin and enzymes.
amylase
enzyme secreted by the pancreas to digest starch.
amino acids
building blocks of proteins, and produced when proteins are digested.
absorbtion
passage of materials through the walls of the intestine into the bloodstream.
anus
opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body.
appendix
blind pouch hanging from the cecum (in the RLQ)
bile
-digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder.

-composed of bile pigments, cholesterol, and bile salts.
bilirubin
pigment released by the liver in bile.
bowel
intestine
cecum
first part of the large intestine.
colon
-large intestine.
(cecum, ascending, transverse, descending, and rectum)
common bile duct
carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum.
defecation
expulsion or passage of feces from the body through the anus.
deglutition
swallowing
digestion
breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms.
duodenum
-first part of the small intestine.

-duo=2, den=10; the duodenum measures 12 inches long.
elimination
removal of waste material from the body.
emulsification
physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thus increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest fat.
enzyme
-a chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances.

-digestive enzymes help in the breakdown of complex foods to simpler foods.
esophagus
tube connecting the throat to the stomach.
fatty acids
substances produced when fats are digested.
feces
solid wastes; stools
gallbladder
small sac under the liver; stores bile
glucose
simple sugar
glycogen
-starch
-glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells.
hydrochloric acid
-produced by the stomach

-necessary for the digestion of food.
ileum
third part of the small intestine
insulin
hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas.
jejunum
second part of the small intestine
lipase
pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats.
liver
-large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen.
-secretes bile, stores sugar, iron, and vitamins.
-produces blood proteins.
-destroys wornout red blood cells.
lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
-ring of muscles between the esophagus and stomach.

-also known as the cardiac sphincter.
mastication
chewing
eti/o
cause
idi/o
unknown
canine teeth
pointed dog-like teeth, also known as cuspids or eye teeth.
dentin
major tissue composing teeth, covered by enamel in the crown, and a protective layer of cementum in the root.
enamel
hard, outermost layer of a tooth.
incisor
one of four teeth in the dental arch.
molar teeth
6th, 7th, and 8th tooth from the middle on either side of the dental arch.
palate
-roof of the mouth.
-hard palate lies anterior to the soft palate.
T tube
tube placed in the biliary tract for drainage.
TPN
Total Parenteral Nutrition
SGOT
SGPT
enzyme tests of liver function
PUD
Peptic Ulcer Disease
PTHC
Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography
PEJ tube
Percutaneous Endoscopic Jejunostomy tube
(feeding tube)
PEG tube
Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube
NG tube
Nasogastric tube
MRI
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
LFTs
Liver Function Tests
IBD
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
HBV
hepatitis B virus
GI
gastrointestinal
GERD
gastroesophageal reflux disease
GB
gallbladder
ERCP
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography
EGD
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy
CT scan
Computed Tomography
BM
Bowel Movement
BRBPR
Bright Red Blood Per Rectum
hematochezia
BE
Barium Enima
ALT
AST
Analine Transaminase
Aspartate Transaminase

(enzyme tests of liver function)
alk phos
alkaline phosphate
paracentesis
(abdominocentesis)
surgical puncture to remove fluid from the abdomen.
nasogastric intubation
insertion of a tube through the nose to the stomach.
liver biopsy
removal of liver tissue followed by microscopic visualization.
gastrointestinal endoscopy
visual examination of the gastrointestinal tract using an endoscope.
gastric bypass
reducing the size of the stomach and diverting food to the jejunum.

(gastrojejunostomy)
liver scan
image of the liver after injecting radioactive material into the blood stream.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
magnetic and radio waves used to produce images of organs and tissues in all three planes of the body.
abdominal ultrasonography
sound waves beamed into the abdomen.
computed tomography
(CT, CT Scan, or CAT Scan)
x-ray series showing cross-sectional images of internal organs.
cholangiography
x-ray examination of the biliary system after injecting contrast into the bile ducts.

process of recording bile vessels.
upper gastrointestinal series
x-ray images of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine after administering barium by mouth.
lower gastrointestinal series
(barium enima)
x-ray images of the colon and rectum after injecting barium into the rectum.
stool guaiac or hemoccult test
detection of blood in feces.
stool culture
test for microorganisms present in stool.
liver function tests (LFT's)
tests for the presence of enzymes and bilirubin in serum.
-tresia
opening
-stenosis
tightning; stricture
-stasis
to stop; control
-spasm
sudden, involuntary contraction of muscles.
-rrhea
flow, discharge
-rrhaphy
suture
-rrhage
-rrhagia
bursting forth (of blood)
-ptysis
spitting
-ptosis
prolapse, fall, sag
-plasty
surgical repair
-phagia
eating, swallowing
-pepsia
digestion
-lysis
destruction, breakdown, seperation
-emesis
vomiting
-ectasis
-ectasia
stretching; dilation
viral hepatitis
inflamation of the liver caused by a virus.
pancreatitis
inflammation of the pancreas
cirrhosis
chronic degenerative disease of the liver.
cholelithiasis
gallstones in the bladder
volvulus
twisting of the intestine upon itself.
ulcerative colitis
chronic inflammation of the colon with presence of ulcers
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
group of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms associated with stress and tension.
intussusception
telescoping of the intestines.
ileus
failure of peristalsis with obstruction of the intestines.
hemorrhoids
swollen, twisted, varicose veins in the rectal region.
dysentery
painful, inflammed intestines.
diverticulosis
abnormal side pockets in the intestinal wall.
Crohn Disease
chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract.
colorectal cancer
adencarcinoma of the colon or rectum, or both.
colonic polyposis
polyps (benign growths) protrude from the mucous membrane of the colon.
anal fistula
abnormal tube-like passageway near the anus.
peptic ulcer
open sore or lesion of the mucous membrane of the stomach or duodenum.
hernia
protrusion of an organ or part through the muscle normally containing it.
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
solids and fluids return to the mouth from the stomach
gastric carcinoma
malignant tumor of the stomach
esophageal varices
swollen, varicose veins in the distal portion of the esophagus or upper part of the stomach.
achalasia
failure of the lower esophagus sphincter (LES) muscle to relax.
periodontal disease
inflammation and degeneration of gums, teeth, and surrounding gums.
oral leukoplakia
white plaques or patches on the mucosa of the mouth.
herpetic stomatitis
inflammation of the mouth by infection with the herpes virus.
dental caries
tooth decay
aphthous stomatitis
inflammation of the mouth with small painful ulcers (canker sores).
steatorrhea
fat in the feces; foul smelling, frothy, fecal matter.
nausea
unpleasant sensation on the stomach, and a tendancy to vomit.
melena
-black tarry stools.
-feces containing digested blood.
jaundice
yellow-orange coloration of the skin and other tissues caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood.
hematochezia
passage of bright, fresh red blood from the rectum.
flatus
gas expelled through the anus.
eructation
gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth.
dysphagia
difficulty swallowing.
diarrhea
frequent passage of loose watery stools.
constipation
difficulty passing stools (feces)
borborygmus
rumbling or gurgling noise produced by the movement of gas, fluid, or both in the gastroinstestinal tract.
ascites
abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
anorexia
lack of appetite
-prandial
meal
-iasis
abnormal condition
-chezia
defecation, elimination of wastes.
-ase
enzyme
stomat/o
mouth
amyl/o
starch
bil/i
gall; bile
bilirubin/o
bilirubin (bile pigment)
chol/e
gall; bile
chlorhydr/o
hydrochloric acid
gluc/o
sugar
glyc/o
sugar
glycogen/o
glycogen; animal starch.
lip/o
fat; lipid
lith/o
stone