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414 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Crani/o
Cranium (skull)
Clavicul/o
Clavicle (collarbone)
Cost/o
Cost (rib)
Scapul/o
Scapula (shoulder blade)
Stern/o
Sternum (breastbone)
Spin/o, Vertebr/o, Spondyl/o
vertebrae (in general)
thorac/o
thoracic vertebrae
lum/o
lumbar vertebrae
sacr/o
sacrum (sacral vertebrae)
coccyg/o
coccyx (coccygeal vertebrae)
pel/vi, ili/o
ilium (pelvic bone)
ischi/o
ishium (pelvic bone)
pub/o
pubis (pelvic bone)
humer/o
humerus (upper arm bone)
radi/o
radius (bone of the forearm)
uln/o
ulna (bone of the forearm)
carp/o
carpals (wrist bones)
metacarp/o
meatacarpals (bone of the hand)
phalang/o
phalanges (bones of the fingers)
femor/o
femur (thigh bone)
patell/o
patella (kneecap)
fibul/o
fibula (bone of the lower leg)
tibi/o
tibia (bone of the lower leg)
tars/o
tarsals (ankle bones)
metatars/o
metatarsals (bones of the feet)
phalang/o
phalanges (bones of the toes)
ankyl/o
stiff
arthr/o
articulation, joint
asthenia
weakness
burs/o
bursa
calc/i
calcium
chondr/o
cartilage
de-
down, from, or reversing
meta-
change or next in a series
muscul/o or my/o
muscle
pel/vi, ili/o
ilium (pelvic bone)
ischi/o
ishium (pelvic bone)
pub/o
pubis (pelvic bone)
humer/o
humerus (upper arm bone)
radi/o
radius (bone of the forearm)
uln/o
ulna (bone of the forearm)
carp/o
carpals (wrist bones)
metacarp/o
meatacarpals (bone of the hand)
phalang/o
phalanges (bones of the fingers)
femor/o
femur (thigh bone)
myel/o
bone marrow or spinal cord
oste/o
bone
para-
near, beside or abnormal
-poesis
production
rheumat/o
rheumatism
ten/o, tend/o or tendin/o
tendon
Beneath the cartilage
subchondral
Destruction of muscle
myolysis
Excision of a rib
costectomy
Inflammation of a joint
arthritis
Paralysis of all four extremeties
quadriplegia
pertaining to the upper arm bone
humeral
pertaining to the collarbone
clavicular
pertaining to the tailbone
coccygeal
prolapse of the ankle
tarsoptosis
surgical repair of the skull
cranioplasty
Rachialgia
painful spine
myocele
fascial hernia
Inflammation of the vertebrae
spondylitis
between the ribs
intercostal
excision of a portion of the skull
craniectomy
broken bone that is visible through an opening in the skin
compound fracture
articulation
joint
rupture of an invertebral disk
herniated disk
What does osteoid mean?
resembling bone
What term refers to the bones that are located between the toes and the bones of the ankle?
metatarsals
A disorder that is characterized by progressive wasting of muscle
muscular dystrophy
examination with an arthroscope
arthroscopy
The clavical bone is also known as what?
collarbone
Lateral curvature of the spine
scoliosis
A complex of symptoms that results from pressure on the median nerve in the carpal tunnel of the wrist
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Severe chest pain and Constriction about the heart caused by an insufficient supply of blood to the heart itself
Angina pectoris
Irregularity or loss of rhthym of the heartbeat
Arrhythmia
Enlarged size of the heart
Cardiomegaly
Abnormalities present in the heart at birth
Congenital heart defects
A condition characterized by weakness, breathlessness, and edema in lower portions of the body.
Congestive Heart failure
An abnormal condition that affects the heart's arteries and produces various pathologic effects, especially the reduced flow of blood to the myocardium
Coronary artery disease
A severe cardiac arrhythmia in which contractions are too rapid and uncoordinated for effective blood circulation
Fibrillation
An electronic apparatus that delivers a shock to the heart, often thru placement of electrodes on the chest
defibrillator
A clinical condition resulting from failure of the heart to pump the blood effectively and to maintain adequate circulation of the blood.
heart failure
Angi/o, Vas/o, Vascul/o
vessel
Aort/o
aorta
arteri/o
artery
arteriol/o
arteriole
ather/o
yellow, fatty plaque
phelb/o or ven/o
vein
venul/o
venule
adenoid/o
adenoids
cervic/o
neck (or the uterine cervix)
ech/o or son/o
sound
-emia, hem/a, or hem/o
blood
extra-
outside
home/o
sameness
lymph/o
lymph or lymphatics
lymphat/o
lymphatics
my/o
muscle
pulmon/o
lung
radi/o
radiant energy (or radius in forearm)
roentgen/o
x-ray
splen/o
spleen
thromb/o
thrombus, blood clot
vascul/o
vessel
Coronary artery disease
CAD
Increased pulse
Tachycardia
High blood pressure
Hypertension
record of the heart and great vessels
Electrocardiogram
radiography of the heart an great vessels
Angiocardiography
Formation of fatty deposits on the artial walls
Atheroclerosis
blockage
Occlusion
Surical repair of blood vessels
Angioplasty
decreased pulse
bradycardia
death of part of the heart muscle
myocardial infarction
use of ultrasound in diagnosing heart disease
echocardiography
the fluid thatis transported by lymphatic vessels
lymph
Which procedure allows direct visualization inside a hollow organ or cavity using a device that consists of a tube and optical system?
Endoscopy
Severe pain and constriction about the heart caused by insufficient blood supply
angina pectoris
The sudden blocking of an artery or lymph vessel by foreign material that has been brought by circulating blood
embolism
An irregularity of the heart beat
dysrhythmia
Roentgenography of the lymphatic vessels
lyphangiography
The passage of a long flexible tube into the heart chamber through a vien
Catheterization
An enlarged spleen
splenomegaly
Any disease of the lymph nodes
lymphadenopathy
balooning out of a vessel wall
aneurysm
below normal blood pressure
hypotension
decreased pulse
bradycardia
Inflammation of the lymphatic vessels
lymphangitis
Pertaining to the lining of the heart
endocardial
Surgical repair of the aorta
aortoplasty
The smallest blood vessels
capillaries
xray of the lymphatic vessels and nodes
lymphangiography
A sac, made up of a double membrane, than encloses the heart
Pericardium
inflammation of the pericardium
Pericarditis
A lining inside the heart
Endocardium
heart muscle
myocardium
Inflammation of the heart muscle
Myocarditis
A general diagnostic term that designates primary disease of the heart
cardiomyopathy
The absorbtion of oxygen from the air and the removal of CO2 by the lungs.
External respiration (Breathing)
The state of equilibrium of the internal environment of the body.
Homeostasis.
Breathing of air into the lungs
Inspiration (aka Inhalation)
Breathing of air out of the lungs
Expiration (aka exhalation)
Labored or difficult breathing
Dyspnea
Temporary absence of breathing
Apnea
A condition in which breathing is uncomfortable in any position except sitting or standing
Orthpnea
Normal respiration
Eupnea
Abnormally slow breathing
Bradypnea
Respirations exceeding 25 breaths per minute; may be the result of excercise, physical exertion, or disease
Tachypnea
Increased respiratory rate that is deeper than normal
Hyperpnea
Increased aeration of the lungs, which may reduce CO2 in the body and disrupt homeostasis
hyperventilation
A measurement of the amount of air taken into and expelled from the lungs
Spirometry
The largest volume of air that can be exhaled after maxiumum inspiration
vital capacity
inability of the lungs to perform their ventilatory function
acute respiratory failure
Deficiency of oxygen, can be caused by respiratory disorders and disease
anoxia or hypoxia
Suffocation
Asphyxiation
A muscular wall that seperates the abdomen from the thoracic cavity
The Diaphragm (it contracts and relaxes with each inspiration and expiration)
Pertaining to the diaphragm
Phrenic
The membrane surrounding each lung
Pleura
The space between the pleura that covers the lungs and the pleura that lines the thoracic cavity
Pleural cavity
An inflammation of the pleura
Pleuritis, also called pleurisy
examination of the bronchi through a bronchoscope
bronchoscopy
Examination of the interior of the larynx
Laryngoscopy
Removal of small pieces of lung tissue for the purpose of diagnosis
Lung biopsy
A biopsy in which a segment of lung is removed after the surgeon has incised the chest
Open lung biopsy
A biopsy in which tissue is obtained by puncturing the suspected lesion through the skin
Percutaneous biopsy
Surgical removal of all or part of a lung
Pneumonectomy
Plastic surgery of the nose
Rhinoplasty
Surgical puncture of the chest cavity to remove fluid
Thoracocentesis
Incision of the trachea through the skin and muscles of the neck overlying the trachea; usually performed for insertion of a tube
Tracheotomy
An opening into the trachea by surgical means
Tracheostomy
A disorder characterized by respiratory insufficiency and hypoxemia
Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
Paroxymal dyspnea accompanied by wheezing; caused by spasm of the brochial tubes or swelling of their mucous membrane
Asthma
A whistling sound made during respiration
Wheeze
Occuring in sudden, periodic attacks or recurrence of symptoms
Paroxysmal
A condition in which the lungs of a fetus remain expanded at birth, OR a collapsed or airless condition of the lung usually caused by injury
Atelectasis
Chronic dilation of a bronchus or the bronchi accompanied by a secondary infection that usually involves the lower part of the lung
Bronchiectasis
radiography of the bronchi after a radioplaque substance has been injected
Bronchography
Lung cancer
Carcinoma of the lung
A disease process that decreases the ability of the lungs to perform their ventilatory function; may result from chronic bronchitis, emphysema, chronic asthma
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) aslo called chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD)
A chronic pulmonary disease characterized by an increase in the size of aveoli and by destructive changes in their walls, resulting in difficulty breathing
Emphysema
Blood in the pleural cavity
Hemothorax
An acute contagious respiratory infection characterized by sudden onset, chills, headache, fever, muscular discomfort. Caused by different types of viruses
Influenza
Inflammation of the larynx
Laryngitis
A condition caused by inhalation of dust particles; frequently seen in occupations like mining and stone cutting
Pneumoconiosis
An accumulation of fluid in lung tissues and aveoli, often caused by CHF
Pulmonary edema
a blockage of pulmonary artery by foreign matter such as fat,air, tumor, or blood clot
Pulmonary embolism
A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of the dust of stone, sand, or flint that contains silica
Silicosis
The sudden, unexpected death of an apparently normal and healthy infant who has no physical evidence of disease that occurs during sleep
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
An infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium Tuberculosis; it is often chronic in nature and commonly affects the lungs althought can occur elswhere in body
Tuberculosis (TB)
The lidlike structure that covers the larynx during the swallowing of food
Epiglottis
Inflammation of the nose
Rhinitis
Labored breathing
Dyspnea
Pertaining to the lungs
Pulmonary
Inflammation of the throat
Pharyngitis
Pertaining to the alveoli
Alveolar
Examination of the larynx
laryngoscopy
another name for pnuemonia..
Pneumonitis
The instrument used in bronchoscopy
Bronchoscope
The material raised from inflammed membranes of the respiratory tract
Sputum
Which structure is inflammed in rhinitis
The nose
A tumorlike growth on the vocal cords
laryngeal polyp
A weak voice
dyphonia
pertaining to the chest
Thoracic
Pertaining to the throat
pharyngeal
Subdivisions of the bronchi
Bronchioles
The windpipe
Trachea
The process of providing nutrition for the body
Alimentation
Excessive leaness caused by disease or lackof nutrition
Emaciation
loss of appetite for food
Anorexia
A disorder characterized by prolonged refusal to eat and often accompanied by psychological stress or conflict
Anorexia nervosa
a type of emotional disorder associated with episodes of binge eating and often terminates in self0induced vomiting
Bulimia
Depletion of nutrients from body cells
malnutrition
The 3 major classes of nutrients
Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats
the enzyme that breaks down lactose (a type of sugar)
Lactase
The enzyme that acts on the sugar found in fruit (which is frutose)
Fructase
The enzyme that breaks down starch
amylase
Enzyme that breaks down protein
Protease or Proteinase
The enzyme that breaks down a lipid (fat)
Lipase
Elevated cholesterol
hyperlipidemia
An abnormal increase in the proportion of fat cells of the body
Obesity
A word that means vomiting
emesis
Things that can interfere with proper nutrition
hyperemesis and diarrhea
Medications that relieve or prevent vomiting
Antiemetics
When output of body fluid exceeds fluid intake
Dehydration
Excessive thirst
Polydipsia
cheil/o
lips
dent/i, dent/o, or odont/o
teeth
gingiv/o
gums
gloss/o or lingu/o
tongue
or/o or stomat/o
mouth
esophag/o
esophagus
gastr/o
stomach
intestin/o or enter/o
intestines
duoden/o
duodenum (division of the small intestines)
jejun/o
jejunum (division of the small intestines)
ile/o
ileum (division of the small intestines)
col/o
colon or large intestine
append/o or appendic/o
appendix
cec/o
cecum (division of large intestine)
sigmoid/o
sigmoid colon (division of large intestine)
proct/o
anus or rectum (division of large intestine)
rect/o
rectum (division of large intestine)
an/o
anus (division of large intestine)
Organs that produce substances that are needed for proper digestion
Accessory organs
The accessory organs to the digestive system are...
the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and salivary glands
Produced by the liver, used in the small intestines for the absorbtion of fats
Bile
Pertaining to the common bile duct
Choledochal
The presence of a stone in the common bile duct
Choledocholithiasis
Diminished secretion of insulin
Diabetes Mellitus
Increased glucose level in the blood
Hyperglycemia
Increased output of urine
Polyuria
Glucose in the urine
Glycosuria
The blood contains less than the normal amount of sugar (usually caused by too much insulin)
hypoglycemia
The substance produced by the salivary glands
Saliva
cholecyst/o
gallbladder
choledoch/o
common bile duct
hepat/o
liver
pancreat/o
pancreas
sial/o
salivary gland
Removal of the vermiform appendix
Appendectomy
Surgical removal of the gallbladder; exploration of the common bile duct is often performed during this procedure
cholecystectomy
Creation of a surgical passage through the abdominal wall into the colon
colostomy
Surgical removal of all or part of the stomach
gastrectomy
Surgical creation of a new opening into the stomach through the abdominal wall. Allowss for feeding tube placement
Gastrostomy
Removal of hemorrhoids by any means, including surgery
Hemorrhoidectomy
Creation of surgical passage through abdominal wall into the ileum. Is necessary when the large intestine has been removed.
Ileostomy
Removal of tissue from the liver for pathologocal examination
Liver biopsy
Resection (partial excision)of portions of the vagus nerve near the stomach. Is performed to decrease the amount of gastric juices.
Vagotomy
An ulcer, chiefly of the mounth and lips
Canker sore
inflammation of the lip
Cheilitis
Inflammation of the gums
Gingivitis
Inflammation of the tongue
Glossitis
Inflammation of the mouth
Stomatitis
Inability or difficulty to swallow
dysphagia
Inflammation of the esophagus
Esophagitis
A condition resulting from a backflow of the stomach contents into the esophagus
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Inflammation of the stomach
Gastritis
Herniation of the stomach
Gastrocele
A common type of gastrocele in which there is protrusion of a structure through the opening in the diaphragm that allows passage of the esophagus
Hiatus or Hiatal hernia
Inflammation of the stomach and the intestinal tract
Gastroenteritis
An excessive amount of acid in the stomach
Hyperacidity
A lesion of the mucous membrane accompanied by sloughing and dead tissue
Ulcer
Visual examination of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum
Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy
Inflammation of the vermiform appendix
Appendicitis
Inflammation of the colon
Colitis
Examination of the lining of the colon using a colonoscope (an elongated endoscope)
Colonoscopy
Inflammation of the diverticulum in the intestinal tract
Diverticulitis
A small sac or pounch in the wall of an organ
diverticulum
an ulcer of the duodenum
Duodenal ulcer
Inflammation of the duodenum
Duodenitis
Stoppage or delay in the passage of food through the intestine
enterostasis
The use contrast agents and radiography to evaluate the gastrointestinal tract
Gastrointestinal (GI) series
Masses of veins in the anal canal that are unnaturally distended and lie just inside or outside the rectum
Hemorrhoids
Inspection of the rectum and lower part of the intestine using a proctoscope
Proctoscopy
Examination of the sigmoid colon using a sigmoidoscope
sigmoidoscopy
Inflammation of the gallbladder
Cholecystitis
Examination of the gallbladder after the bile is rendered opaque
Cholecystography
Formation or presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or common bile duct
Cholelithiasis
Stoppage of bile secretion
Cholestasis
A chronic liver disease characterized by marked degeneration of liver cells
Cirrhosis
Inflammation of the liver
Hepatitis
Enlargement of the liver
Hepatomegaly
Inflammation of the pancreas
Pancreatitis
Large internal organs
Viscera
An artificial opening in the colon
colostomy
Excessive vomiting
Hyperemesis
Examination of the interior of the stomach
Gastroscopy
The joining of the stomach to the duodenum after a partial gastrectomy
Duodenal anastomosis
Incision of the abdominal waall
laparotomy
An inguinal hernia is protrusion of what structure through an opening in the abdominal wall?
intestine
What is meant by eupepsia?
normal digestion
Which physician specializes in diseases of the anus, rectum, and colon?
A Proctologist
Radiography of the bile ducts using a contrast agent
Cholangiography
Where is bile stored?
Gallbladder
Poor digestion
Dyspepsia
Pertaining to, secreting, or containing urine
Urinary
The final product of protein matabolism and the chief nitrogenous waste product present in urine
Urea
A toxic condition associated with renal insufficiency or renal failue
Uremia
Pertaining to the kidney
Renal
The reduced ability to of the kidney to perfomr its functions
Renal insufficiency
The process of diffusing blood through a membrane to remove toxic materials
Kidney dialysis or hemodialysis
An alternative to hemodialyis
Peritoneal dialysis
The mebrane that covers the large internal organs of the abdominal cavity and lines the cavity
Peritoneum
Increasing urination or an agent that causes increased urination
Diuretic
Increased or excessive urination
Diuresis or polyuria
The branch of medicine concerned with the male genital tract and the urinary tracts of both
Urology
A physician who specializes in the practice of urology
Urologist
albumin/o
albumin
-cele
hernia
glycos/o
sugar
hemat/o, hem/o, or -emia
blood
olig/o
few
periton/o
peritoneum
poly-
many
prote/o or protein/o
protein
py/o
pus
-rrhexis
supture
sacr/o
sacrum
scop/o
to view
-stomy
formation of an opening
ur/o OR -uria
urine or urinary tract
urin/o
urine
cyst/o
bladder(sometimes also means cyst or sac)
glomerul/o
glomerulus (filtering structure of kidney)
pyel/0
renal pelvis (resevoir in kidney that collect urine(
ureter/o
ureter
urethr/o
urethra
Surgical creation of a new opening into the bladder
cystostomy
crushing of a stone
lithotripsy
An instrument used for surgically crushing bladder stones
Lithotrite
A fiberoptic instrument that is inserted through the skin to break up stones
Nephroscope
The use of the nephroscope to eliminate calculi
nephroscopy
Surgical attachment of a prolapsed kidney
Nephroplexy
Creation of a new opening into the renal pelvis of the kidney
Nephrostomy
Removal of tissue from the bladder using a needle inserted through the skin
Percutaneous bladder biopsy
Removal of tissue from the kidney uisng needle puncture of the skin
Percutaneous Renal Biopsy
Surgical incision of the kidney to remove a stone from the renal pelvis
Pyelolithotomy
Formation of a new opening into the renal pelvis
Pyelostomy
Absence of urine or production of less than 100 ml /day
Anuria
A substance in the blood, the level provides a rough estimate of kidney function
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
Passage of a tubular instrument into a body channel or cavity
Catheterization
Inflammation of the urinary bladder
Cystitis
A bladder hernia that protrudes into the vagina
Cystocele
Examination inside the bladder with a cystoscope, through the urethra
Cystoscopy
A type of nephritis in which the glomeruli of the kidney are inflammed
glomerulonephritis
X-Ray of the urinary tract after injection of a radiopaque material into a vein.
Intravenous Pyelography (IVP)
The presence of stones in the kidney
Nephrolithiasis
abnormal renal softening
Nephromalacia
Enlargement of one or both kidneys
Nephromegaly
Prolpase or downward displacement of the kidney
Nephroptosis
A condition in which there are degenerative changes in the kidneys but no inflammation
Nephrosis
Ultrasonic scanning of the kidney
Nephrosonography
Radiologic visualization of the kidney
Nephrotomography
Destructive to kidney tissue
Nephrotoxic
A diminished capacity to form and pass urine, excreting less than 500ml/day
oliguria
hemat/o, hem/o, or -emia
blood
olig/o
few
periton/o
peritoneum
poly-
many
prote/o or protein/o
protein
py/o
pus
-rrhexis
supture
sacr/o
sacrum
scop/o
to view
-stomy
formation of an opening
ur/o OR -uria
urine or urinary tract
urin/o
urine
cyst/o
bladder(sometimes also means cyst or sac)
glomerul/o
glomerulus (filtering structure of kidney)
pyel/0
renal pelvis (resevoir in kidney that collect urine(
A hereditary disorder characterized by hundreds of fluid filled cysts throughout both kidneys
Polycystic Kidney Disease
A tumor found on a mucosal surface, such as the inner lining of the bladder
Polyp
Excessive secretion and discharge of urine
Polyuria or Diureses
Inflammation of the renal pelvis
Pyelitis
A record produced by x-ray of the kidney and the ureter
pyelogram
Pus in the urine
Pyuria
Faiulure of the kidney to perform its essential functions
Renal failure
X-ray of the renal pelvis and ureter after injection of a contrast medium into the renal pelvis
retrograde pyelography
Inability to hold urine in the bladder
Urinary incontinence
Inability to empty the bladder
Urinary retention
Surgical crushing of a stone
Lithotripsy
A radiographic record of the bladder and the urethra
cystourethrogram
Presence of kidney stones
Nephrolithiasis
The elimination of body wastes
Excretion
A surgical procedure to correct nephroptosis
Nephropexy
The functional unit of the kidney
Nephron
Examination of the bladder
Cytoscopy
Inflammation of the renal pelvis
pyelitis
Pertaining to the urethra
urethral
Abnormal softening of the kidney
Nephromalacia
Surgical repair of a ureter
ureteroplasty