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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Biomolecules
molecules that synthesized by living organisms and contain carbon atoms.
Carbon
has 4 electrons in its outer shell and forms covalent bonds by sharing these electrons with other atoms
Biomolecules
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleotides
Polymers
repeated subunits
Carbohydrates
composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1

hydrated carbons
carbons surrounded by water
bond with hydroxal groups & hydrogens, not water molecules
Carbohydrates
CH20
Carbohydrates
monosaccharides
disaccharides
polysaccharides
monosaccharides
the simple sugars, composed of a single unit.
glucose
fructose
Galactose
Ribose
Deoxyribose
-ose
disaccharides
carbohydrates formed by the covalent bonding of two monosaccharides.
sucrose
lactose
-ose
polysaccharides
carbohydrates formed by the covalent bonding of several monosaccharides.
Glycogen
Starch
Cellulose
helps store energy & important components of cell membrane
glucose
important source of energy for our cells
common monosaccharide
nucleotides
Ribose & Deoxyribose are monosaccharide molecules that are important components of __________.
sucrose
table sugar
compsed of glucose & fructose joined together to make ______.
lactose
carbohydrate found in milk
compsed of glucose & galactose make ______.
Glycogen
a polymer of glucose subunits and is found in animal cells
body stores this and will breakdown and use for energy.
Starch
a polysaccharide found in plants
energy source
Cellulose
polysaccharide found in plants
consumed by humans, unable to digest and absorb it.
AKA dietary fiber
Lipids
a diverse group of biomolecules that contain primarily carbon and hydrongen atoms linked together by nonpolar covalent bonds.
amphipathic molecules
do NOT dissolve in water
amphipathic
a molecule that contains both polar and nonpolar regions
Lipids
Triglycerides
Phospholipids
Eicosanoids
Steroids
Triglycerides
"fat"
glycerol & 3 fatty acid molecules
Triglycerides
formed by linking each of three fatty acids to a different carbon in the glycerol backbone.
Saturated fatty acid
carbons linked only by single bonds
Unsaturated fatty acids
contain one or more pairs of carbons linked by double bonds and thus have fewer hydrogens per carbon.
Monounsaturated fatty acid
contains exactly one double-bonded pair of carbons
Polyunsaturated fatty acid
contains more than one double-bonded pair of carbons.
saturated fatty acids
_________ _____ _____ are implicated in the development of plaques that can clog arteries, which can lead to stroke or heart attack.
Triglycerides (function)
Long term energy storage
protection
insulation
non-polar
Phospholipids
lipids that contain a phosphate group.
glycerol forms the backbone
2 fatty acids, 1 glycerol, and phosphate group
tail
fatty acids
nonpolar
The 2 ____ ____ form the ____ region of the phospholipid, which is ______ because of their long chains of carbon atoms.
phospholipid bilayer
the core structure of cell membranes
micelle
a spherical structure composed of a single layer of phospholipids
it functions in the transport of nonpolar molecules in an aqueous environment. heads face outward, tails face inward forming hydrophobic interior.
Eicosanoids
a fatty acid and ring structure
Used as cellular communication molecules (local communication)
Steroids
Basically non-polar molecules
multiple carbon based rings bonded together
all based on cholesterol molecule.
Used for cellular communication (hormones)
ex. pit. gld. tells ovaries what to do.
cholesterol
All steroids are modified from ________ molecules.
Also ________ is important in the components of the plasma membrane.
Proteins
composed of amino acids (20 types)
All A.A. built around a basic pattern
A central carbon atom, carboxyl group, hydrogen atom, and variable component
Each different A.A. has a different R Group
proteins
To form _______, A.A. are covalently bonded together by the formation of polypeptide bonds during a condensation reaction. (dehydration synthesis)
water is produced during this process.
hydrolysis
to break apart by water
Peptides
short chains of A.A., usually less than 50.
Proteins
usually more than 50 A.A. to hundreds longs
Primary protein structure
The sequence and # of A.A. which is determined by peptide bonds w/in a peptide chain.
Secondary protein structure
fold pattern due to hydrogen bonds forming btwn hydrogen atom in the amino group of one A.A. and Oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of another A.A. in the same polypeptide. Form sheets or helixes
Tertiary protein structure
folding due to interactions btwn. R groups of polypeptide
Interactions may be:
Hydrogen bonds
Ionic bonds
Van der waals forces
Covalent bonds
Hydrogen bonds
form btwn polar R groups
Ionic bonds
form btwn ionized or charged R groups
Van der waals forces
electrical attraction btwn the electrons of one atom and the protons of another atom.
Covalent bonds
form btwn the R groups of 2 cyteines (a sulhydryl group)
STRONG BONDS
Quaternary protein structure
folding of more than one polypeptide chain to form a functional protein.
(hemoglobin)
hemoglobin
tranports oxygen in the blood
a single protein consisting of four separate polypeptide chains
Protein functions
Structural molecules
Chemical messengers (hormones)
receptors
Enzymes **
all enzymes are protein chemicals
1000 kinds of different enzymes molecules
Fibrous proteins
extended elongated strands that function in structure or contraction.
collagen
tropomyosin
collagen
protein found in tendons and bones
tropomyosin
protein found in muscle cells
Globular proteins
coiled, folded, irregular, and bulky

act as chemical messengers for intercellular communication.
Glycoproteins
have carbohydrates attached to the polypeptide chains

important to plasma membrane that surrounds the cells, cell recognition
Lipoproteins
have lipids attached to them

important in transport of lipids in blood
Nucleotides
Building blocks of nucleic acids
transfer energy (ATP) within a cell & form the genetic material of the cells.
Nucleotides
Composed of deoxyribose, sugar, phosphate, & 1 nitrogeneous bases (cytosine, guanine, adenine, thymine) covalently bonded together
Nucleic Acids
2 subclasses: DNA & RNA

Genetic codes for protein production (DNA) and decoding of DNA and conversion of info. into A.A. sequences (RNA).
DNA molecules
Nucleotides covalently bonded (strength)
found in the nucleus of a cell
Produces long chains of nucleotides (longest ones)
Chemistry produces a helical shape
2 helices bonded length wise
H bonds btwn nitrogeneous bases (A-T, C-G)
2 sides have complimentary bases along their entire length.
RNA nucleotides
composed of ribose sugar, phosphate, and 1 of 4 nitrogeneous bases (guanine, cytosine, adenine, and uracil)
RNA molecules
Typically a single helix
Helix may fold into complex shapes
Genetic code
Sequence of DNA bases occuring along the length of a DNA molecule
46 DNA's per human (23/mom 23/dad)
Up to 1000's of genes per DNA molecule
64 possible words
DNA
____ consists of 2 strands of nucleotides coiled together into a double helix.
61
___ words for 20 A.A., 3 words for punctuation.
Protein synthesis
Transcription
Conversion of a DNA base sequence into a new RNA molecule whose base sequence is complimentary to the DNA base sequence. (makes a copy of RNA molecule)
It is nessessary because the site of _______ _______ is in the cytoplasm. (ribosome)
Translation
Using ribosome and transfer RNA (tRNA) to "read" mRNA base sequence and connect A.A. together to form the desired polypeptide.
DNA Replication
Production of new DNA molecules prior to cell division.
Make 2 complete sets (46 molecules per set) available before cell division can occur
DNA REPLICATION STEPS
1. DNA helicase enzyme can break H bonds btwn. nucleotides along length of molecule
2. DNA mucleotides now exposed on each chain
3. DNA polymerase acts to bind free DNA nucleotides to the exposed DNA bases of each chain
4. Covalent bonds btwn sugars & phosphates form
5. Produces 2 DNA molecules each 1/2 old & 1/2 new
6. DNA base sequence is the same in each molecule
Step #1
DNA Replication
DNA helicase enzyme can break H bonds btwn. nucleotides along length of molecule
Step #?
Step #2
DNA Replication
DNA mucleotides now exposed on each chain
Step #?
Step #3
DNA Replication
DNA polymerase acts to bind free DNA nucleotides to the exposed DNA bases of each chain
Step #?
Step #4
DNA Replication
Covalent bonds btwn sugars & phosphates form
Step #?
Step #5
DNA Replication
Produces 2 DNA molecules each 1/2 old & 1/2 new
Step #?
Step #6
DNA Replication
DNA base sequence is the same in each molecule
Step #?