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60 Cards in this Set

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What is the most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway?
Cellular Respiration
How is Cellular Respiration like Combustion?
CH + O2 » CO2 + H20
How much energy (kcal) does 1 mole of Glucose produce?
686 kcal
What is the term used for the transfer of a phospate group from ATP to another compound?
Phosphorylation
When do Redox reactions release energy?
When electrons move closer to electronegative atoms.
What is the energy stored in food molecules used for?
Synthesis ATP
What are electron transfers called?
Redox Reactions
When a substance loses electrons we say that it is?
Oxidized
When a substance gains electrons we say that it is?
Reduced
A substance that donates electrons is said to be a ?
Reducing Agent
A substance that loses electrons is said to be a ?
Oxidizing Agent
What does ATP phosphorylate during active transport?
Specific Membrane Proteins
What does ATP phosphorylate during mechanical work?
Motor Proteins
What does ATP phosphorylate during chemical work?
Reactants
What must be added to pull an electron away from an atom?
Energy
What is oxidized and reduced in Cellular Respiration?
Glucose oxidized
Oxygen reduced
Where are hydrogen atoms stripped from glucose go first?
NAD+
What does each NADH molecule formed during respiration represent?
Stored Energy
What is the purpose/function of the electron transport chain?
Break the fall of electrons to oxygen into several energy releasing steps
What type of reaction is electron transfer from NADH to O2?
Exergonic
Endogonic or Exogonic
p. 159
What downhill route do most electrons travel during cellular respiration?
Food » NADH » Electron Transport Chain » O2
Arrange in order:
Electron Transport Chain
Food
O2
NADH
What is the beginning reactant and ending product of Glycolysis?
Glucose
Pyruvate
p. 160
Where does Glycolysis take place?
Cytosol
Where does the Kreb Cycle take place?
Mitochondrial Matrix
What is the beginning reactant and ending product of the Kreb Cycle?
Pyruvate & CO2
What is the mode of ATP synthesis used to power redox reactions that transfer electrons from food to oxygen?
Oxidative Phosphorylation
p.160
Where in the cell does the electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation take place?
Mitochondrian's inner membrane
p.160
What generates almost 90% of ATP in respiration?
Oxidate Phosphorylation
What are the 2 modes of ATP synthesis used in respiration?
Oxidative and Substrate-Level Phosphorylation
What type of ATP synthesis occurs when an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate to ADP?
Substrate-level phosporylation
p.160
How much ATP is made when Glucose is degraded to CO2?
38
What is the net total of ATP in the first phase of Glycolysis?
- 2 ATP
p.161
What is the net total energy in the second phase of Glycolysis?
+ 4 ATP & 2 NADH
When O2 is present in Glycolysis, _____ is converted to ATP by ?
NADH; Electron Transport Chain
p.161
What stage in Respiration completes the energy-yielding oxidation of organic molecules?
The Kreb Cycle
What enters the Mitochondria during the Kreb Cycle?
2 Pyruvates
p.161
What part of the cell does Pyruvate enter?
Mitochondrion
During what stage is CO2 first released?
The No Name Step
What is the net total energy yield from the No Name Step?
2 NADH x 3 ATP = 6 ATP
p.169
By what mode(s) does Glycolysis and The Kreb Cycle synthesis ATP?
All substrate-level phosphorylation
p.164
What transfers the electrons removed during Glycolysis and The Kreb Cycle to the Electon Transport Chain?
NADH
What is the net total energy generated from the Kreb Cycle?
2 x ATP
6 x NADH x 3 = 18 ATP
2 x FADH2 x 2 = 4 ATP
How many NADH reduce 1 x O2 molecules to 2 x H20?
2
p.166
What enzyme makes ATP from ADP and Pi?
ATP Synthase
p.167
What powers the ATP Synthase?
The difference in H+ on the opposite sides of the Inner Mitochondrial Membrane.
p.167
Chemiosmosis couples what 2 mechanisms?
Electron Transport Chain to ATP Synthesis
p.168
What kingdom(s) and organelles do ATP Synthase reside?
Eukaryotes: Mitochondria and Chlorplasts
Prokaryotes: PM
p.167
How much ATP is produced by oxidative phosphorylation?
34
p.169
How many ATP's are produced per molecule of Glucose?
38
p.169
How much energy (kcal) are stored in 1 mole of ATP?
7.3 kcal
What is the efficiency of respiration?
40% with 60% heat loss
p.170
What other metabolic process enables cells to produce ATP?
Fermentation
p.170
What does Glycolysis oxidize Glucose to?
2 x Pyruvate
p.170
What is the oxidizing agent of Glycolysis?
NAD+
p.170
What is pyruvate converted to in Alcohol Fermentation?
Ethanol
p.170
What is pyruvate reduced by to form lactate?
NADH
p.170
What stages of Respiration can Proteins enter?
Glycolysis, No Name, Kreb
p.171
What stages of Respiration can Fats enter?
Glycolysis, No Name
p.171
What stages of Respiration can Carbs enter?
Glycolysis
p.171
What mechanism controls Cellular Respiration?
Feedback Inhibition (end product inhibits enzyme)
p.171