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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define Memory.
Memory is mental processes that enable us to acquire, retain, and use information over time.
What are the 3 fundamental processes of Memory?
Encoding, Storage, and Retrival.
Explain Encoding.
Process of transporting information into a form that can be entered into and retained by the memory system.
Explain Storage.
The process of retaining information in memory so that it can be used at a later time.
Explain Retrival.
The process of recovering information stored in memory so that we are consciously aware of it.
Explain the Stage Model of Memory. What does it consist of? What do they have different?
Says memory consists of 3 distinct stages:
-Short term
-Long term

They all have different capacities, durations, and functions.
Define Sensory Memory.
The stage of memory that registers information from the environment and holds it for a very brief period of time (a few seconds)
Who is George Sperling and what did he do?
-Did experiences that demonstrated that our visual sensory memory holds a great deal of information very briefly (only for about half a second)
-This information is available just long enough for us to pay attention to specific elements that are significant to us at that moment.
Explain Iconic Memory.
Also known as Visual Sensory Memory
-the brief memory of an image or icon
Explain Echoic Memory.
Also known as Auditory Sensory Memory
-longest lasting effect
-A brief memory that is like an echo
What is significant about Sensory Memory?
-The sensory impressions overlap and flow together and give the world a flowing impression instead if chopped up.
-Updates from sensory to short term
Explain Short Term Memory.
The stage of memory in which information transferred from sensory memory and retrived from long term memory is temporarily stored and enters conscious awareness.
What is the duration of Short Term Memory?
about 20 seconds unless the information is rehersed (maintenance rehersal)
Explain Magic 7 +/- 2.
In our memory we only have room for 5-9 memories/things. When you already have 5-9 memories/things and a new memory is introduced----one of your previous 5-9 gets "bumped out"
Explain Maintenance Rehearsal.
Repeating information until you can remember it.
What is Chunking?
-Putting related information together to make it easier to remember
-Hypernate information "pausing" in things like social security numbers and phone numbers make the information easier to remember by chunking the numbers together
Explain Long Term Memory.
The stage of memory that represents the long-term storage of information.
What is the amount of information that can be held in the long term memory?
It is essentially unlimited.
What are 3 ways to increase the efficency of encoding in long term memory.
-Elaborate Rehearsal (focus on the meaning of information)
-Self-Reference (apply information to yourself)
-Visual Imagery
Define Procedural Memory.
Refers to long-term memory of how to perform different skills, operations, and actions.
Define Episodic Memory.
Refers to the long term memory of specific events in your life and time and places.
Define Semantic Memory.
Refers to memory of general knowledge like names, facts, ideas, etc.
Explain Explict Memory.
Information or knowledge that can be consciously recollected.
Explain Implict Memory.
Information or knowledge that have been repressed into your uncoscious but may still affect your behavior in the future.
How is information organized in long term memory?
Clustering and Association.
Explain the Semantic Network Model.
Describes long term memory as units of information organized in a complex network of associations.
Explain Retrieval.
The process of accessing stored information.
What is a Retrieval Cue?
A clue that helps trigger recall of a given piece of information stored in the long term memory.
What is Retrieval Cue Failure?
Refers to the inability to recall long-term memories because of inadequate/missing retrieval cues.
Explain the Tip-Of-The-Tongue-Experience.
Memory phenomenon that involves the sensation of knowing that the information is stored in your long term memory but you are temporarily unable to retrieve it.

-Illustrates that retriving information is not an all or nothing process
Explain Recall.
Retrieving information without the aid of retrieval cues.
Explain Cued Recall.
Remembering an item of information in response to a retrieval cue.
Explain Recognition.
Identifying correct information out of several possible choices.
What is the Serial Position Effect?
The tendency to remember items at the beginning of a list and at the end of a list but the middle items are not remembered that well.
Explain the Encoding Specificity Principle.
When you are encoding information (studying, learning) if you recreate the environment, mood, and state you have a better chance of recalling the information.
What are the 3 important factors when it comes to the Encoding Specificity Principle.
Explain the encoding specificity principle: the Context Effect.
The tendency to recover information more easily when retrieval occurs in the same setting of the orginal learning of the information.
Explain the encoding specificity principle: Mood Congruence.
The idea that a given mood tends to evoke memories that are consistent with that mood.
Define Forgetting.
The inability to recall information that was previously available.
What did Herman Ebbinghaus do? And what was his contribution to memory?
Did an experiment on forgetting and studied himself as a subject. Repeated nonsense words and memorized them and went back at different time intervals and tested himself about what he remembered.

He found 2 distinct patterns.
1-much of what we forget is lost quite soon after we originally learned it
2-the amount of forgetting eventually levels off
Define Encoding Failure.
The inability to recall specific information because of insufficient encoding of the information for storage in the long term memory.

Explain the Decay Theory.
If information in your short term memory is not used over time it decays and then it is lost.

only pertains to short term memory.
What is the Interference Theory?
Forgetting is caused by one memory competing with or replacing another memory.
What are the two basic types of Interference?
1-Retroactive Interference

2-Proactive Interference
Explain Retroactive Interference.
A new memory interferes with remembering an old memory
Explain Proactive Interference.
An old memory interferes with remembering a new memory.
What is Motivated Forgetting?
The idea that we forget because we are motivated to forget usually because a memory is unpleasant or disturbing.
What are the two forms of Motivated Forgetting?
Explain Suppression.
A conscious or deliberate effort to forget.
Explain Repression.
Unconsious motivation to forget.
What is Amnesia?
Severe memory loss.
What is Retrograde Amnesia.
Loss of all information from your past could happen from a severe head injury still the victims can function (they may have to relearn how to walk and talk etc) and they have the ability to build new memories
What is Anterograde Amnesia?
Can remeber their past but they can not build or make new memories.