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83 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Which of the 4 macromolecules are chainlike polymers?
Nucleic Acids
Define Polymer
A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds.
Define Monomer
A small repeating unit that is a building block of polymers.
What kind of chemical reactions form bonds?
Dehydration Reaction AKA Condensation Reaction
What is the specialized protein that speeds up chemical reactions in cells?
Polymers are dissassembled to monomers by undergoing this process.
How many different types of amino acids are there?
This is the simplest carbohydrate.
What is the term for 2 monosaccharides joined by condensation?
What is the most common monosaccharide?
Glucose C6H12O6
What functional groups do carbohydrates have?
Carbonyl and hydroxyl groups.
What 2 functions do carbohydrates serve?
Fuel - cellular respiration
Building materials - of carbon sources (small organic molecules)
What happens to sugar molecules that are not immediately used?
There monomers are added to make disaccharides and polysaccharides.
What bond links the carbohydrate monomers together?
Glycosidic bond
Where is glucose found in the cell?
Where is cellulose found in the cell?
In the plant cell walls.
Where is glycogen found in the cell?
What is the most prevalent disaccharide?
What 2 monomers form Sucrose?
Glucose and Fructose
What 2 monomers form Maltose?
Glucose and Glucose
What 2 monomers form Lactose?
Glucose and Galactose
What 2 functions do polysaccharides have?
Storage - starch & glycogen
Structure - cellulose
What polymer, consisting entirely of glucose monomers, is a storage polysaccharide of plants?
What are the 2 forms of starch and which ones are simpler?
Amylose (simplest) and Amylopectin
Where do plants store starch?
In plastids in the chloroplast.
What is the name of the polysaccharide that animals store, and where is it stored?
Glycogen; liver and muscle cells
What is the name of the structural polysaccharide that plants store, and where is it stored?
Cellulose; in the plant cell walls.
What are 3 differences between the plant polysaccharides starch and cellulose?
Starch = storage, 1-4 linkage of alpha glucose monomers, helical shape

Cellulose = structure, 1-4 linkage of beta glucose monomers, straight shape
What is the name of the polysaccharide used by anthropods, and what is its function?
Chitin; structural (exoskeleton)
The molecular structure of this macromolecule makes it hydrophobic.
List the 3 most important families of lipids.
1. Fats
2. Phospholipids
3. Steroids
Why are fats hydrophobic?
B/c they have nonpolar C-H bonds in the hydrocarbon chain of the fatty acids.
What 2 molecules make up a fat?
1. Glycerol
2. 3 x Fatty acids
What are 2 differences between unsaturated fat and saturated?
Unsaturated fat has 1+ double bonds (bent), and is liquid at room temp.

Saturated fat is solid at room temp (straight)
What separates a fat from a phospholipid?
# of fatty acid tails:
fat = 3
Phopholipid = 2
Where do you find phospholipids and cholesterol in a cell?
Cell membrane
What is the most common type of steroid?
What are polymers of amino acids called?
What 2 functional groups do amino acids have?
1. Amine
2. Carboxyl
What bond links amino acids to form polymers?
Peptide Bonds
Give an example of a transport protein and what does it transport?
Hemoglobin; oxygen from lungs to body
What makes one amino acid different from another?
What does a protein monomer look like?
See p.71
What does a dipeptide look like?
See top of p. 73
Look at NCCNCCNCCNCC backbone!
Draw the amino acid, GLYCINE (Gly)
See p.72
When do the levels of structure arise?
When a protein consists of 2+ polypeptide chains.
What protein carries oxygen in RBC?

It's a transport protein
What protein structure is the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide?
Primary Structure
What protein structure has coils or folds and H-bonds of a polypeptide backbone to form repeating patterns?
Secondary Structure
What are the 2 types of secondary protein structures?
1. Alpha Helix
2. Beta Pleated Sheets
What helps to form the secondary structure?
H bonds at regular intervals along the polypeptide backbone.
What type of bonds?
What catalyst is able to break peptide bonds?
What type of bond is a peptide bond? Covalent? H-Bond? Ionic?
What has no bearing on the formation of a proteins secondary structure?
R group
What forms the secondary structure of a protein?
The N of the amino is joined by a peptide bond with the C of the Carbonyl
What 3 types of bonds develop between R groups, and what type of bond are they? -covalent, H, ionic?
1. H-bonds:
-nonpolar side chains
-Hydrophobic Interactions
2. Ionic Bonds (+- R-groups/side chains)
3. Disulfide Bridges (covalent)    
What is the type of bond between 2 cysteine(cys) monomers?
Disulfide Bridge
What is the overall structure of a protein composed of 2+ polypeptides?
Quaternary Structure
What causes a protein to denature?
1. pH level
2. Salt concentration
3. Temperature
What happens when a protein denatures?
It becomes biologically inactive.
What does denaturation mean and give an example.
Loss of a proteins shape; egg white loses its transparency and becomes white because the proteins have denatured.
What determines the shape of a protein?
A change of 1 amino acid in the primary structure will change the protein.
What determines the primary structure of a protein?
This is a unit of inheritance.
How many chromosomes, DNA molecules, and genes do human beings have?
23 pairs of chromosomes = 23 DNA molecules = 23 x 100's/1,000's of genes

1 chromosome = 1 DNA molecule = 100's/1,000's genes
If nucleic acids are polymers, what are their monomers?

-Pentose Sugar
-Nitrogeneous Base
What is a nucleotide?
A pentose sugar
Nitrogeneous Base
What are the 2 families of nitrogeneous bases?
1. Pyramidines (C,T,U)
2. Purines (A,G)
Is Thymine found in DNA, RNA, or both?
DNA Only
Is Uracil found in DNA, RNA, or both?
RNA only
Is Guanine found in DNA, RNA, or both?
Both DNA & RNA
Is Adenine found in DNA, RNA, or both?
Both DNA & RNA
Is Cytosine found in DNA, RNA, or both?
Both DNA & RNA
What are the 2 types of nucleic acids?
1. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
2. Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
What is the genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents?
Where is DNA Transcribed?
In the nucleus.
What is DNA transcribed onto?
Where does Translation take place?
On a ribosome in the cytoplasm.
What are the complementary base pairs?
A - T
G - C

Purine - Pyramidine
What type of bonds make a polynucleotide?
Phosphodiester linkages (covalent) between the phosphate of one nucleotide and the sugar of the next.
What protein structure is the overall 3D shape of a polypeptide resulting from interactions among R-groups?
Tertiary Structure
What proteins have a quaternary structure?
Ones with 1+ polypeptide chains.
What bond holds the sugar to the phosphate in a nucleotide?
Covalent bond