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34 Cards in this Set

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volcano
a weak spot in the crust where molten malterial, or magma, come to the surface
magma
a molten mixture of rock-forming substances, gases, and water from the mantle
lava
when magma reaches the surface
Ring of Fire
major volcanic belt
where do most volcanic eruptions occur?
along diverging plate boundaries, such as the mid-ocean ridge, or in subduction zones around the edges of oceans.
island arc
string of islands formed by the volcanoes along a deep ocean trench
hot spot
area where magma from deep within the mantle melts through the crust like a blow torch
what happens during a volcanic eruption?
the gases dissolved in magma rush out, carrying the magma with them
magma chamber
the pocket beneath a volcano where magma collects
pipe
long tube in the ground that connects the magma chamber to the Earth's surface
vent
an opening where molten rock and gas leave the volcano
lava flow
the area covered by lava as it pours out of the vent
crater
bowl-shaped area that may form at the top of a volcano around the volcano's central vent
silica
material that is formed from the elements oxygen and silicon, is one of the most abundant materials in the EArth's crust and mantle
the more silica magma contains, the thicker it is
what does the silica content of magma determine?
whether the volcanic eruption is quiet or explosive
pahoehoe
fast-moving, hot lava
looks like a solid mass of winkles, billows, and ropelike coils
formed by quiet eruptions
aa
lava that is cooler and slowmoving
formed by quiet eruptions
when hardened, forms a rough surface consisting of of jagged lava chunks
pyroclastic flow
occurs when an explosive eruption hurls out ash, cinders, and bombs as well as gases
active
or live volcano is one that is erupting or that is expected to erupt in the near future
dormant
or sleeping volcano is expected to awakin in the near future and become active
extinct
or dead volcano is unlikely to erupt again
hot spring
forms when ground water heated by a nearby body of magma rises to the surface and collects in a natural pool
pahoehoe
fast-moving, hot lava
looks like a solid mass of winkles, billows, and ropelike coils
formed by quiet eruptions
geyser
a fountain of water and steam that erupts from the ground
geothermal energy
energy from water or steam that has been hated by magma
shield volcanoes
a wide, gently sloping mountain made of layers of lava and formed by quiet eruptions
cinder cone volcano
a steep, cone-shaped hill or mountain made of volcanic ash, cinders, and bombs piled up around a volcanoes opening
composite volcano
a tall, cone-shaped mountain in which layers of lava alternate with layers of ask and other volcanic materials
caldera
the huge hoel left by the collapse of a volcanic mountain
volcanic neck
forms when magma hardens in a volcano's pipe
dike
a slab of volcanic rock formed when magma forces itself across rock layers
sill
a slab of volcanic rock formed when magma squeezes between layers of rock
batholith
a mass of rock formed when a large body of magma cooled inside the crust
shield volcanoes
a wide, gently sloping mountain made of layers of lava and formed by quiet eruptions