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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
geologist
Scientists who study the forces that make and shape planet Earth.
rock
The material that forms Earth's hard surface.
geology
The study of planet Earth.
constructive force
Shape the surface by building up mountains and landmasses.
destrutive force
Slowly wear away mountains and eventually, every other feature on the surface.
continent
Great landmasses surrounded by oceans.
seismic wave
A vibration that travels through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake.
pressure
The amount of force pushing on a surface or area.
crust
The layer of rock that forms Earth's outer surface.
basalt
A dark, dense, igneous rock with a fine texture, found in oceanic crust.
granite
A usually light-colored rock that is found in continental crust.
mantle
The layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core.
lithosphere
A rigid layer made up of the uppermost part of the mantle and the crust.
asthenospere
The soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats.
outer core
A layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of Earth.
inner core
A dense sphere of solid iron and nickel in the center of Earth.
heat transfer
The movement of energy from a warmer object to a cooler object.
radiation
The transfer of energy through empty space.
conduction
The transfer of heat by direct contact of particles of matter.
convection
The transfer of heat by movements of a heated fluid.
density
The amount of mass in a given space; mass per unit volume.
convection current
The movement of a fluid, caused by differences in temperature, that transfers heat from one part of the fluid to another.
pangaea
The name of th esingle landmass that broke apart 200 million years ago and gave rise to today's continents.
continental drift
The hypothesis that the continents slowly move across Earth's surface.
fossil
A trace of an ancient organism that has been preserved in rock.
mid-ocean ridge
The undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produces; a divergent plate boundary.
sonar
A device that determines the distance of an object under water by recording echoes of sound waves.
sea-floor spreading
The process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor.
deep-ocean trench
A deep valley along the ocean floor through which oceanic crust slowly sinks toward the mantle.
subduction
The process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent plate boundary.
plate
A section of the lithosphere that slowly moves over the asthenosphere, carrying pieces of continental and oceanic crust.
scientific theory
A well-tested concept the explains a wide range of observations
plate tectonics
The tehory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle.
fault
A break in Earth's crust where slabs of rock slip past each other.
transform boundary
A plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions.
divergent boundary
A plate boundary where two plates move away from each other.
rift valley
A deep valley that froms where two plates move apart.
convergent boundary
A plate boundary where two plates move toward each other.