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106 Cards in this Set

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What is the study of the relation among psychological, physiological, social, and most recently, spiritual factors and well-being?
Health Psychology
Who studies how changes in behaviour and lifestyle can potentiate well-being and attenuate psychopathology or organic pathology?
Health Psychologists
What is the process that occurs in response to events that disrupt, or threaten to disrupt, our physical or psychological functioning?
Stress
What is an environmental event, situation, or stimulus that threatens an organism or causes stress?
Stressor
What is the difference b/w stress and a stressor?
Stress is a process and a stressor is an event, situation, or stimulus.
What is an environmental event or stimulus that threatens an organism and that leads to a coping response, which is any response made by an organism to avoid, escape, from or minimize and aversive stimulus?
Stressor
Which response that accompanies stress helps mobilize resources to either flight or fee from danger, thereby facilitating survival and reproduction?
Physiological Response
Which physiologist coined the term fight-or-flight?
Walter Cannon
What term describes the physiological preparation of animals to deal with any attack, which includes for example, increased heart rate, deepening of respiraction, dilation of pupils, and increase in release of glucose from the liver?
Fight-or-Flight Response
This response to a stressor occurs within seconds or minutes and allows an organism to direct all energy to dealing with the threat at hand while postponing less critical autonomic activities.
Fight-or-Flight Response
A biological and biochemical process that begins in the brain and that spreads through the ANS, causing hormone release and eventually exerting an effect on the immune system
Stress
Which sex if more likely to "tend and befriend" than fight or flee, male or female?
female
What two ways can stress be viewed?
Eustress and Distress
This definition is used to describe the good or positive view of stress
Eustress
This definition is used to describe the bad or negative view of stress
distress
This occurs whenever there is change and whenever we are forced to adapt to that change
stress
What is the term for physiological, biological and immunological responses to stressors?
The General Adaptation Syndrom or GAS
Who popularized the term "stress" and contributed most our early knowledge of the stress response?
Hans Selye
Who used the term "stress" as part of his model of homeostasis?
Walter Cannon
Name that Theory: Describes the body's short-term and long-term reaction to stress.
General Adaptation Syndrome
GAS
What is the first stage of GAS?
The Alarm Stage
In this stage of GAS, the body mobilizes its resources
The Alarm Stage
What is the second stage of GAS?
The Resistance Stage
In this stage of GAS, resistance levels fall and eventually begin to decline
The Resistance Stage
What is the third stage of GAS?
The Exhausion Stage
In this stage of GAS, resistance is depleted, leading to exhaustion.
The Exhausion Stage
NAME that GAS stage: The body prepares itself for immediate action/fight or flight
ALARM STAGE
NAME that GAS stage: Arousal of sympathetic nervous system releases hormones that help prepare our body to met threats or dangers
ALARM STAGE
NAME that GAS stage: Physiological responses are aimed at boosting physical abilities while reducing activities that make the organizsm vulnerable to infection after injury
ALARM STAGE
NAME that GAS stage: Result is boost in energy, tense muscles, reduced sensitivity to pain, the shutting down of digesting (so that blood will flow more efficiently to the brain, muscles, and skin), blood pressure increases, and increased output of adrenal, stress, hormones
ALARM STAGE
NAME that GAS stage: Body might be exposed to infection and disease, thus, the immune system kicks in and the body begins to fight back
ALARM STAGE
NAME that GAS stage: Arousal is lower, but our bodies continue to draw on internal resources at an above normal rate in order to cope effectively
RESISTANCE STAGE
NAME that GAS stage: Defenses are prepared for a longer, sustained attack against the stressor
RESISTANCE STAGE
NAME that GAS stage: Immunity to disease increases in the body maximizes its defences
RESISTANCE STAGE
NAME that GAS stage: Physiological responses make the body vulnerable to other stressors
RESISTANCE STAGE
NAME that GAS stage: You may find you are more easily annoyed by minor frustrations
RESISTANCE STAGE
NAME that GAS stage: Continued exposure to the same stressor, or the appearance of additional stressors, drains the body of its resources and leads to the next stage
RESISTANCE STAGE
NAME that GAS stage: Our capacity to resist is depleted
EXHAUSTION STAGE
NAME that GAS stage: Our susceptibility to illness increases
EXHAUSTION STAGE
NAME that GAS stage: Our physiological and immune system fail
EXHAUSTION STAGE
NAME that GAS stage: Bodily organs that were already weak before the stress are the first to fail
EXHAUSTION STAGE
NAME that GAS stage: Tense muscles may lead to headache and neck pain
EXHAUSTION STAGE
NAME that GAS stage: Increased blood pressure may lead to chronic hypertension or high blood pressure
EXHAUSTION STAGE
During a stress response, the hypothalamus secretes a hormone called:
CRF
Corticotrophine-releasing factor
The secretion of CRF triggers the pituitary gland to release this hormone into the blood stream:
ACTH
Adrenocorticotropic hormone
This hormone acts on the adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids from the adrenal gland
ACTH
This hormone affects the availability of the fuel supply (carbohydrate, fat, and glucose metabolism), which is needed to respond to stress
Cortisol
If the levels of this hormone stay increased for too long then muscle breakdown, a decrease inflammatory response, and suppression of the immune (defense) system occur
Cortisol
These catecholmines are released during stress:
Norepinephrine and Epinenphrine
This release of this catecholmine is for energy levels, and experience of anxiety and anger and arousal and viligance
Norepinephrine
The release of this catecholmine raises heart rate and blood pressure
Norepinephrine
This release of this catecholmine is for flight/fight response, causes a burst of energy after an exciting event
Epinephrine
The release of this catecholmine stimulates the heart, blood sugar level, muscular stength and visceral responses
Epinephrine
This is the fight-flight hormone
Cortisol
This hormone increases heart rate and blood pressure
Cortisol
This field of science studies the response of the body's mechanism for dealing with invading variables
Psychoneuroimmunology
This is the body's mechanism for dealing with invading microorganisms, such as allergens, bacteria, and viruses.
The immune system
This reduces the ability of the immune system to funciton at its best
Stress
Effects of Chronic Stress Increased sympathetic activity and decreases cellular immunity of this system
Immune System
Effects of Chronic Stress: Immune cells to migrate to different autoimmune and allergic conditions of this system
Immune System
Chronic Stress: Over time, the positive acute mobilization of immune cells in the response to challenge is suppressed in this system
Immune System
Effects of Chronic Stress: Increase the risk of coronary heart disease in this system
Cardiovascular and Metabolic System
Effects of Chronic Stress: Elevate blood pressure in this system
Cardiovascular and Metabolic System
Effects of Chronic Stress: Increase Atherosclerosis in this system
Cardiovascular and Metabolic System
Effects of Chronic Stress: Increase risk of myocardial infarction in this system
Cardiovascular and Metabolic System
Effects of Chronic Stress: Increase likelihood of obesity in this system
Cardiovascular and Metabolic System
The Immune System is made up of three types of specialized white blood cells known as:
Lymphocites
The three types of lymphocites that make up the immune system are:
B-Cells, T-Cells and Natural Killer Cells
These kind of lymphocites produce antibodies, protein molecules that attach themselves to foreign agents and mark them for destruction:
B-Cells
This kind special kind of B-Cell remembers specific invaders, making for easier identification in the future
Memory B-Cells
These kind of lymphocites are often involved in attacking the intruders and also sometimes act as helper cells by increasing the activation of the IS
T-Cells
These kinds of lymphocytes are esepcially potent in killing viruses and also help attack tumours
Natural Killer Cells
How does both immediate and long-term stress on physical health effect lymphocyte production?
It decreases lymphocyte production
What is the opposite of Normal Homeostasis?
Disrupted Homeostasis
What is the opposite of Protective Mode?
Vulnerable Mode
How do positive emotions effect immune responses?
Positive emotions improve immune response
How do negative emotions effect immune responses?
Negative emotions compromise immune response
These cells are produced in the Thymus
T-Cells
These cells carry out the activity of the immune system
lymphocytes
These cells are produced outside the Thymus
B-Cells
These cells do not secrete antibodies but are essential for antibody production
T-Cells
These cells secret antibodies to inactivated antigens inhibiting disease
B-Cells
This part of the brain is located at the base of the neck behind the breastbone and is essential in the maturation of IS
Thymus
This hormone is secreted by the thymus causing T-Cells to mature
Thymosin
This results when T-Cells and B-Cells are activated and some of their substances become memory cells; thus the next time it encounters the same antigen, IS is primed to destroy it
Acquired Immunity
By this age, the Thymus's size/function has shrunk about 75%
20
By this age, the Thymus is virtually gone
60
Name that Theory: Stress occurs only to the extent that the individuals involved perceive the situation as threatening to them and beleive they will be unable to cope with its dangers or demands
Cognitive Appraisal Theory of Stress
Based on Caroline Thomas's Research, which disease is the most correlated with psychological traits?
Cancer
This type of personality equates personal relationships with suffering and rejections
Cancer-Prone Personality
This type of personality conceals their true feelings of isolation behind a mask of cheerful self-confidence
Cancer-Prone Personality
According to the Blumberg Study, how to people who are expressive in nature and at times show bizarre personalities respond to therapy?
Well
According to the Blumberg Study, how to people who are consistently serious, overcooperative, over-nice, overanxious, painfully sensitive, apologetic personalities respond to therapy?
Do not respond well
What has tremendous impact in how we perceive stress, and mainly, the world, thus our condition of health
Our belief
Who believes that explanatory style can be changed such that we can learn to acquire more positive based belief systems that would change the way we perceive and interpret stress or challenging events?
Martin Seligman
A person with this kind of belief system assumes the problem is stable, or never-ending and they are sure it will never go away instead of it is a one-time thing
Pessimists
A person with this kind of belief system believes the problem is global, that it affects a broad spectrum of activities instead of an isolated incident?
Pessimists
A person with this kind of belief system believes that a bad event is going to ruin their whole life instead of seeing it as something with a specific cause that has no bearing on the rest of their life?
Pessimists
A person with this kind of belief system tends to attribute their problems to permanent personal inadequacies that undermine everything they do
Pessimists
A person with this kind of belief system usually views a setback as a one-time thing attributable to bad luck, some external factor, or at least to a specific cause that can be remedied
Optimist
This type of stress is more enduring than normal, temporary stresses such as moving, the type of season, or short-term financial setback
Cumulative Stress
This type of stress can arise from unresolved psychological conflicts lasting over many years
Cumulative Stress
This type of stress may also be due to accretion of a large number of life events, which include changes in the course of your life that require an adjustment and reordrering of your priorities, such as going off to college, changing jobs, a marriage or leaving an intimate relationship...
Cumulative Stress
Who developed an instrument called the Life Events Survey also known as The Social Readjustement Scale to access the number and severity of life events that occur in a two-year period?
Dr. Holmes and Dr. Rahe
The Homlmes-Rahe Scale assigns a numerical score to the almost four dozen stressor, or life changes that increase what?
Risk to disease
This might produce either headaches, fatigue, or panic attacks, depending on your particular point of greatest vulnerability
Cumulative Stress