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2242 Cards in this Set

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What is Vernaccia di Serraptrona?
A red sparkling wine from Vernaccia made in dry and sweet versions. (Le Marche)
When did the revival of Cabernet Sauvignon begin in Hawkes Bay New Zealand?
Mid 1960's
What is "annata" in Italy?
The vintage year
What did Sicilys regional governement do out of disdain for the DOC requirements?
Set their own regional quality criteria.
If a label bears a "q" it is approved
What is Italy's most widely sold classified wine?
Chianti
What are the top 3 producing varietals in New Zealand?
Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot Noir, and Chardonnay
What percent of vines planted does Sauvignon Blanc represent in New Zealand?
1/3
What varietals is wine production in Waikato/Bay of Plenty New Zealand focusing on?
Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Sauvignon Blanc
Where is the original zone of Chianti Classico located?
Between Florence and Siena
What is Chianti Normale?
A wine labeled as Chianti without an identifying region.

-Meant for immediete consumption
Where is Lambrusco from?
Emilia-Romagna
What region is also known as the Italian Riviera?
Liguria
What is the northern most region in Italy?
Trentino-Alto Adige
What is the longest river in Italy?
The Po
What wine is considered to be the international ambassador for Calabria?
Ciro, a rosso from the Gaglioppo grape
Between 1997 and 2007 what happened to New Zealand wine production?
The number of wineries doubled from 262 to 543
Vineyard land tripled from 18,300 acres to 62,600 acres
What region has the warmest ripening conditions in New Zealand?
Northland
Where has Pinot Noir acheived the most fame in New Zealand?
Martinborough
What does "invecchiato" mean in Italy?
Aged
What is "cantina" in Italy?
A winery or wine cellar
Where are Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon predominantly planted in New Zealand?
Hawkes Bay
3/4 of both varietals
What appelation has somewhat higher production standards than the Cotes du Rhone?
Cotes du Rhone Villages
Where is New Zealands highest, and the worlds most southerly wine region?
Central Otago
What are the 8 varieties allowed for varietal labeling in Alsace?
Auxerrois
Chasselas
Gewurtztraminer
Muscat
Pinot Gris
Pinot Noir
Riesling
Sylvaner
What is the climate of Northern Rhone?
Continental
What is the only region in France that is allowed to grow Riesling?
Alsace
What percent of the Rhones wine production is in Southern Rhone?
95%
What district is considered the warmest in Germany?
Kaiserstuhl
What is the largest Rhone cru?
Chateauneuf du Pape
In what German wine region are 3/4 of the vines planted Riesling?
Mittelrhein
What was the first country to initiate laws to protect the names and origins of wine?
Italy in the 1700's

-specifically Chianti
What does an einzellage lay within?
A grosslage, within a bereich, within an ambaugebiete
What are the top two classifications of Greek wines?
OPE

OPAP
How much of Greece's total wine production is table wine?
Half
-It is mostly bulk white wine
Of the 280,000 acres of vineyards in Greece, how many are planted with wine grapes?
About half

-The rest are table grapes and raisins
What is the largest producer of the Tre-Venezie?
Veneto
What perentage of Italy's wine comes from the Tre-Venezie?
17%
What appelations of Southwest France are along the Basque border with Spain?
Madiran
Jurancon
Iruleguy
What are typical Northern Rhone wines based on?
Single varietals
What does the classification OPE represent?
Sweet fortified wines in Greece
What area of Greece is home to soft white wines and retsina?
Central Greece
When did the modern Italian system of wine classification take effect?
1963
What is the wine quality pyramid of Italy?
Vino di Tavola
IGT
DOC
DOCG
What are the 5 regions of Central Italy?
Marches
Umbria
Latium
Abruzzo
Molise
How many OPE's are there in Greece?
8
What is the climate of Southern Rhone?
Mediterranean
Where are the wineries of Nemea and Patras located?
Peleponnesus, Greece
What is the primary grape of Montilla-Moriles?
Pedro Ximenez
What wine zones are in Victoria?
Central Victoria
Gippsland
North East Victoria
North West Victoria
Port Phillip
Western Victoria
What are the 4 types of Madeira ascending by level of sweetness?
Sercial
Verdelho
Bual
Malmsey
What are the three most common grapes used in Vin doux naturels?
Muscat
Muscat a Petits Grains
Muscat of Alexandria
What are the advantages of controlled/inoculated fermentation?
-rapid start to fermentation
-higher alcohol production
-An ability to ferment at lower temperatures
-less production of unwanted byproducts
-resulting wine is clean and free of odors
What is the primary grape of Beaujolais?
Gamay
What is the most widely planted red grape in Italy?
Sangiovese
Historically, how was Malaga made?
From grapes dried on mats in the sun
What are the grapes used in white port production?
Malvasia Fina
Gouveio
Rabigato
What can happen to the alcohol strength in an old oloroso?
It can increase to as much as 24% due to evaporation
What is the soil type of Anjou Saumur?
Gravel terraces, chalk, schist, slate, and volcanic spilite with deep granite loams
What are three red wines produced in Touraine?
Chinon
Bourgueil
St. Nicholas de Bourgueil
Where do the sweet wines of Anjou Saumur come from?
Coteaux du Layon
Bonezeaux
Quarts de Charme
*all are 100% Chenin Blanc
How was Madeira discovered?
Wines were shipped in cask to the far east and Americas
The rocking of the boat and heat of the tropics accelerated the aging process
Where is Madeira located?
A Portuguese island in the Atlantic 400 miles from the African coast
How is grape sugar and ethanol measured in France?
Baume = grape sugar = ethanol
At what temperature does port production take place?
Between 80-85 degrees
What is liqueur d'expedition?
A dosage of cuvee to replace what was lost in disgorgement
What is degorgement?
Sediment that is removed from the neck of a bottle of champagne.
Wine is chilled, the neck dipped into an icy brine solution, crown cap removed, ice yeast plug shoots out
What is aquardente in port production?
A grape spirit with an alcohol strength of 77%
Used to halt fermentation
What are the ascending levels of sweetness in Champagne?
brut nature/sans dosage - no sugar
extra brut - extremely dry
brut - dry
extra dry/extra sec - off dry
sec - slightly sweet
demi-sec - sweet
doux - very sweet
What are the 3 definitions for solera?
A set of casks arranged in tiers, each representing a different vintage
An aging and fractional blending system
The butts containing the oldest wine
What is the taille phase?
taille = cut
In sparkling wine production the marc is cut in the maie with the pelles when the mouton is lifted
What French category is seen as a temporary probationary status for those wines awaiting the higher level?
VDQS
What is the soil of the right bank of Bordeaux?
Clay, chalk, sand and gravel
What is Austrias position in the wine market today?
Regaining its position
Considered to be one of the most modern, dynamic, and active wine producing countries
What weather patterns in Austria affect the growing season?
The fierce winds of the Hungarian steppes and the more temperate winds and rain showers from Western Europe
What viticultural or vinicultural practices are restricted in Australia?
There aren't any
Where is the Limari Valley in Chile?
Coquimbo region
In what part of Victoria does Riesling grow the best?
In the high country, inparticularly the Strathbogie Ranges
How does Austria mark a bottle to show that it has passed quality control mandates?
A red and white banderole around its neck
What is Australias place of origin system known as?
Geographical indications

GI's
What wine region in Austria has its own classification system?
Wachau
What are the 4 main wine districts in Chile (north to south)?
Coquimbo
Aconcagua
Central Valley
Southern Region
What are crayeres?
Large excavations from the Romans mining chalk in Champagne. They are now cool damp storage for wine
What are two variations of Manzanilla Sherry?
Manzanilla Pasada - lost its flor
Manzanilla Amontillado - prolonged aging
What is a reserve ruby?
A blend of premium rubys bottled after 4-6 years in oak
What specific conditions are required for the growth of flor in finos?
-must have acidity
-environment must be humid and aerobic
-barrels must be seasoned
-no residual sugar
-alcohol can not exceed 16%
What is tawny port?
May be bottled after 3 years like ruby but many are labeled as 10-20 or 30 years old. This signifies an average time in cask, not the minimum
What is the least acidic and most aldelhydic wine in the world?
Sherry
What are four Nebbiolo based wines out of Piedmont?
Barolo
Barbarescco
Gattinara
Ghemme
What type of fermentation does most Gamay go through
Carbonic maceratiion or whole berry fermentation
What is the purpose of cold stabilization?
The chilling of white wine in the cask tank to filter out the tartrate crystals
What are some of the characteristics of an oaked Sauvignon Blanc?
Medium bodied
Masked varietal flavor
Smoke
Toast
Mouth-filling
What varietal may have "petrol" characteristics when aged?
Riesling
What are the profile characteristics of Riesling?
High acid
ripens to high sugar levels
often finished with residual sugar
long-lived
What is a "climat" in Burgundy?
A vineyard parcel
What is the change in respiration as the climate gets colder?
respiration increases
for every 18 degrees respiration doubles
Define translocation
Materials are moved from one area of the plant to another
i.e. Sugars are moved from the leaf to growing shoot tips, roots, or the trunk where they are needed for energy
Define Microclimate
The area directly surrounding the vine or canopy
Define Mesoclimate
The weather experienced within a specific vineyard
What varietal produces both gray-blue and gray-pink clusters, often on the same vine?
Pinot Grigio/Gris
What flavor profile would a Riesling grown on volcanic soil have?
Mango, papaya, and tropical fruits
What is a trellis system?
A superstructure to support the vines vegetative growth and enable it to be positioned for optimal sunlight exposure and air passage.
i.e. a stake, a multilevel system of posts, crossbars and wires
What is powdery mildew?
a.k.a.oidium
-native to North America
-Attacks the vine with white cobweb like filaments
-Infection before flowering results in reduced yields
-Can survive over winter
-Thrives in warm dry condidtions with shade
-sulfur spray eliminates this threat
Where are the majority of white grapes found in Bordeaux?
Left Bank and Entre Deux Mers
What is downy mildew?
AKA peronospera
-fungal disease native to North America
-attacks green on plant
-Initially vine leaf appears to have oil spots, spreads outward with white cottany filaments
-Copper sprays (Bordeaux mixture) can stop infection from spreading
What is organic viticulture?
Increases soil microbial activity by adding compost and manure and eliminating all synthetic products
Allows application of inorganic elements such as sulfur and copper
What are the primary white varieties in Austria?
Gruner Veltliner
Welsch Riesling
Chardonnay
Weissburgunder
Riesling
Sauvignon Blanc
Fruhroter (roter) veltliner
Neuburger
Rotgipfler
Zeirfandler
What is shoot thinning?
Removal of excess shoot growth in the spring
What is winter pruning?
Removel of portions of the previous seasons growth so the vine maintains a desired shape and size
Define sand as a soil fraction
Largest particle of soil
Least capacity for holding nutrients and water
Define clay as a soil fraction
Has the greatest capacity for holding water and nutrients
What is "terra rossa"?
A red brown mix of clay, sand, and silt
What area is home to the biggest wine companies in Australia?
Barossa Valley
In what region of Australia is the north known for its reds and the south known for its sparkling wines?
Pyrenees
What is the most prevelant white grape in Australia?
Chardonnay
What grapes grow well in Rio Negro and Neuquen and why?
Torrontes and Semillon
-cool climate and limestone soils are good for high acid whites
What are the classification fators that determine a wines category or status in Greece?
Place of origin
Method of production
Grape varieties
What is a "Grand Marque" Champagne?
used to indicate membership in what was once an exclusive club sydicat des Grand Marques
-now defunct
- Is not the result of a superior classification
What is Torgiano Reserve made from?
minimum 70% sangiovese plus other non-aromatic reds to fill out the blend
From Le Marche
What is the distance between the northern and the southern Rhone?
32 miles
What Austrian varietal is a cross between Weissburgunder and Silvaner?
Neuburger
What is Malaga?
A fortified wine produced around the port city of Malaga in Andalucia Spain
What are the wine regions of Steiermark (Styria)?
Sudosteiermark
Sudsteiermark
Weststeiermark
Wein
Approximately how many wineries are there in Greece?
400
What is the only AOC in France that is allowed to designate its wines by variety?
Alsace
What are the two sparkling AOC's in the Languedoc Roussillon?
Blanquette de Limoux
Cremant de Limoux
What are the requirements for Gattinara?
90% minimum nebbiolo
May add Bonarda and Vespolina
Minimum aged 3 years
Minimum 1 year in cask
minimum 12% alcohol
Riserva minimum 4 years - 2 in wood and 12.5% alcohol
What is the climate and soil type in Greece?
Mediterranean
largely alkaline and volcanic
What are the varietals grown in Northern Rhone?
Syrah
Viognier
Marsanne
Roussanne
What is edelfaule?
noble rot
What is the most famous southern Rhone appellation?
Chateauneuf du Pape
What is the ratio of German sekt production to that of Champagne?
More than twice as much
What are the 4 groups that Greek wines are categorized into?
Quality wines
Regional wines
Table wines
Retsina
What are the 3 grapes used for red wine production in Greece?
Agiorgitiko (Nemea)
Xyromavro (the north)
Mandilaria (Aegean Islands)
What are the most important varietals in Southern Rhone?
Grenache
Syrah
Mouvedre
Carignan
Cournoise
Muscardin
Vaccarese
Cinsault
Terret Noir
Grenache Blanc
Clairette
Viognier
Bourbelenc
Ugni Blanc
Roussanne
Marsanne
What percentage of German wine falls into the Tafelwein or Landwein category?
4%
What variety does Chateauneuf de Pape usually have 2/3 or more of?
Grenache
What is the most popular still white produced in Piedmont?
Gavi from the Cortese grape
How are dry wines in Germany labeled?
Trocken
Classic
Selection
What percentage of Greek wine production comes from the islands?
1/4 or 25%
Up to what category level can a wine be vinified dry in Germany?
Auslese
What is the most prevelant grape variety in Alsace?
Pinot Blanc
Closely followed by Riesling
Where is the Rhone Valley located?
On either side of the Rhone river extending 20 miles south of Lyons to 120 miles south of the city of Avignon
What is the required percentage of a varietal in an Alsatian wine to bear the varietal name?
100%
What are Greek hyma?
Family country wines
Where are Europes oldest vineyards found?
Crete, Greece
What is the majority of the wine produced in Greece?
white
Define the soil fraction of organic matter
Makes clay soils more friable (easily broken apart)
Helps sandy soils retain nutrients and water
What is Cerasuolodi Vittoria?
Sicilys first DOCG
A blend of Nero d'Avola and Frappato
When did Pinot Noir first appear in New Zealand?
mid 1970's in the Auckland region
What types of wine is Macedonia known for producing?
Heavy reds and crisp whites
What types of wine are produced in St Peray of Northern Rhone?
Still and sparkiling whites from Marsanne and Roussanne
What are the additional requirements for QmP wines?
Graduated ripeness levels
May not be Chaptalized
What is the top level on the German wine quality pyramid?
QmP
What is the literal translation of Piedmont?
foot of the mountains
What is "colli" in Italy?
Hills
What 3 regions is the south of France divided into?
Provence
Languedoc Roussillon
Southwest
What are the varietals that are allowed in the Alsatian Grand Cru vineyards?
Gewurtztraminer
Muscat
Pinot Gris
Riesling
How many indigenous grape varieties does Greece have?
Hundreds and most are not found outside of its borders
What types of wine are produced in St Peray of Northern Rhone?
Still and sparkiling whites from Marsanne and Roussanne
Where was the French appellation of origin system born?
In the Rhone, in Chateauneuf du Pape in 1923
What are the additional requirements for QmP wines?
Graduated ripeness levels
May not be Chaptalized
What German wine region is best known for its red wines?
Ahr
What is the top level on the German wine quality pyramid?
QmP
What is the literal translation of Piedmont?
foot of the mountains
What is "colli" in Italy?
Hills
What 3 regions is the south of France divided into?
Provence
Languedoc Roussillon
Southwest
What are the varietals that are allowed in the Alsatian Grand Cru vineyards?
Gewurtztraminer
Muscat
Pinot Gris
Riesling
How many indigenous grape varieties does Greece have?
Hundreds and most are not found outside of its borders
Where was the French appellation of origin system born?
In the Rhone, in Chateauneuf du Pape in 1923
What German wine region is best known for its red wines?
Ahr
What is the category OPAP wines for in Greece?
non-fortified wines, most of them dry
What is Eiswein?
Wines made from frozen grapes of at least beerenauslese quality
What is sturm?
Grape must served during harvest and drunk with roasted chestnuts
What region is home to the Austrian Wine Academy?
Neusiedlersee Hugelland
When were grape vines first cultivated in Austria?
at least 700 b.c.
How much of the wine produced under the Cote du Rhone appellation is red?
95%
How much of Australias wine production is exported?
2/3
Where is the worlds largest vineyard area?
Languedoc Roussillon
In the 1960's what factors were defined as major ailments to the Greek wine industry?
-lacked a quality control system
-winemaking practices were not sound
-dubious trade practices
-phylloxera invaded Northern Greece
-lack of labor force due to mass emmigration
How and when was the vine brought to Australia?
1788 by the first English colonists
What is "cerasuolo" in Italy?
a light red (cherry colored) rose
What grape varieties are used in the production of marsala?
Catarratto, Grillo, and Ansonica
What 3 ways may the base wine of marsala be fortified?
-addition of grape spirits
-addition of concentrated must (aka mosto cotto)
-addition of a late picked overipe must and alcohol (aka sifone)
What is Argentinas 2nd largest wine region?
San Juan
Where is Primitivo almost exclusively grown?
Apulia
The majority of wine produced in the Swan Valley and Swan District is what?
fortified or bulk wine
How are cru artisans defined in Bordeaux?
Small family owned and operated estates that are actively engaged in the sale of their own product
Where did Cabernet Sauvignon originate from?
Bordeaux France
What is the difference between bottle aged and wood aged port?
bottle aged is without oxidation or presence of oxygen known as reductive aging. wood aged is influenced by oxygen and oxidation
Why is sulfur added before fermentation?
-to inhibit wild yeast fermentation
-to slow the growth of spoilage bacteria
-to prevent the browning of the juice from oxidation
What variety are dry white Bordeaux wines made mostly from?
Sauvignon Blanc
What are the sweet white Bordeaux wines made from?
Late harvest or botrytis affected semillon
How many properties in Bordeaux were ranked in 1855?
87
When was the one time the Bordeaux classification of 1855 was updated?
In 1973 Mouton Rothschild was moved from 2nd to 1st growth
What are the coarser lots of sherry and how are they fermented?
Oloroso - oak
How are the finest vats of sherry fermented?
In stainless steel
What is the primary grape in sherry?
Palomino
Outside of the coolest growing regions, when are the grapes typically harvested for sparkling wine production?
earlier than they would be for table wine production so the acids are high and the sugars and pigment are low
How does the French term Vin Doux Naturel translate?
naturally sweet wine
What are the 2 styles of Montilla Moriles wines?
fino and oloroso
What are lagares in port production?
Shallow granite troughs that port grapes are transported to and crushed by foot
What area of South Africa has soil/salt issues from the sea breezes of the Indian and Southern ocean?
The western coast from Perth down
What are the principal red grape varieties of Argentina?
Malbec
Bonarda
Cabernet Sauvignon
Syrah
Merlot
Tempranillo
What are the four most tannic wines?
Cabernet Sauvignon
Syrah/Shiraz
Nebbiolo
Tannat
How are most wines labeled in Alsace?
Appellation Alsace Controlee

Most wines fall under the blanket Alsace AOC
What are the major islands that contribute to wine production in Greece?
Santorini
Crete
Samos
Limnos
Rhodes
Kefalonia
What are the primary grape varieties of Languedoc Roussillon?
Carignan
Grenache
Syrah
Merlot
Cabernet Sauvignon
Chardonnay
Sauvignon Blanc
Muscat
Grenache Blanc
What types of wines are produed in the Peleponnesus region of Greece?
Warm reds and flowery whites
What is unique about Nahe, Germanys growing season?
spring arrives early and fall comes late giving the grapes ample time to ripen
What are the requirements of barolo?
100% Nebbiolo
minimum 3 years aging
minimum 2 years in cask
a riserva is a minimum of 5 years
What percent of Alsatian wines are white?
91%
What are the five grapes typically used in a red Bordeaux?
Cabernet Sauvignon
Cabernet Franc
Merlot
Malbec
Petite Verdot
What is the relationship between primitivo and zinfandel?
They are different clones of the same variety
What do the soils of the left bank of Bordeaux consist of?
gravel of varying depths, sand and pebbles
Pineau de la Loire is another name for what varietal?
Chenin Blanc
What appellations in Bordeaux surround the town of Libourne?
Canon-Fronsac
Fronsac
Lalande de Pomerol
Pomerol
St. Emillion
What are the regional wines of Maconnais called?
Macon
Macon Superieur
Macon plus the name of the village
Where is Welsch Riesling grown?
Austria
Bulgaria
Hungary
Italy
How are quality wine production grapes grown in Argentina?
trained in a vertical trellis system and drip irrigated
What is Argentinas Tempranilla known as in Spain?
Tempranillo
Define shoot devigoration
The slowing of shoot elongation.
Can be accomplished by water stress or forcing upward growing shoots into a downward position
How was Viognier brought to the United States?
It was found in the Rhone in the mid 1980's
What is Syrah/Shiraz commonly blended with and where?
Viognier in Australia and Cote Rotie
What are the principal white grape varieties grown in argentina?
Pedro Gimenez
Torrontes
Chardonnay
Moscatel de Alejandria
Chenin Blanc
Ugni Blanc
What are the profile characteristics of Muscat?
high alcohol
high extract
highly aromatic
good acids
How is Viognier typically fermented?
stainless steel without malolactic
What is the most widely planted white varietal in Argentina?
Pedro Gimenez
NO relation to Spains Pedro Ximenez
What are the Austrian DAC's?
Weinvertal - Gruner Veltliner
Traisental - Gruner Veltliner and Riesling
Kremstal - Gruner Veltliner and Riesling
Mittelburgenland - Blaufrankisch
Kamptal
Leithaberg
Eisenberg
What is the most widely planted grape variety in Bordeaux?
Merlot
A significant amount of what was thought to be Merlot in Chile is actually what grape variety?
Carmenere
What is Barbera primarily used for when grown in hot climates?
bulk wine production
Where is the majority of the worlds Gamay planted?
Beaujolais
What is significant of Beaujolais Nouveau wines?
They are finished and ready to be drank within a few months of harvest
What are lees?
yeast cells and other solids remaining after fermentation
What is racking?
The draining of clear wine off of the sediment or lees
What is retroussage?
"turning up" or "tucking up" of squashed grapes during the pressing stage of sparkling wine production
What region is Nebbiolo native to?
Piedmont, Italy
What are the districts of Tasmania?
Launceston
Hobart
What are the districts of South Australia?
Adelaide Hills
Barossa Valley
Clare Valley
Coonawarra
Eden Valley
Wrattonbully
Limestone Coast
Southern Fleurieu
Kangaroo Island
Currency Creek
Riverland
Langhorne Creek
McLaren Vale
Padthaway
Mt Benson
Adelaide Plains
Robe???
What are the districts of Victoria?
Rutherglen
Goulburn Valley
Yarra Valley
What are the districts of New South Whales?
Lower Hunter Valley
Upper Hunter Valley
Mudgee
Riverina
What are the sub AVA's of Sonoma?
Alexander Valley
Bennett Valley
Dry Creek Valley
Knights Valley
Rockpile
Russian River Valley
Chalkhills
Green Valley
What are the sub AVA's of Napa?
Atlas Peak
Chiles Valley
Diamond Mountain
Howell Mountain
Los Carneros
Mt. Veeder
Oakville
Rutherford
Spring Mountain
St. Helena
Stags Leap
Wild Horse Valley
Yountville
What are the sub AVA's of Mendocino?
Anderson Valley
Cole Ranch
McDowell Valley
Potter Valley
Redwood Valley
Yorkville Highlands
What are the AVA's of the South Coast?
Cucamonga Valley
Malibu Newton Canyon
Temecula
San Pascual Valley
What are the AVA's of the Central Valley Region?
Clarksburg
Dunnigan Hills
Solano County Green Valley
Suisan Valley
Lodi
River Junction
Diablo Grande
Madera
What are the Sierra Foothills AVA's?
North Yuba
El Dorado
Fairplay
California Shenandoah Valley
Fiddeltown
What are the Central Coast AVA's?
San Francisco Bay
Santa Cruz Mountains
Cienega Valley
Mount Harlan
Limekiln Valley
Pacheco Pass
Paicines
San Benito
Arroyo Seco
Carmel Valley
Chalone
Hames Valley
Monterey
San Lucia Highlands
Arroyo Grande Valley
Edna Valley
Paso Robles
Santa Maria Valley
York Mountain
Santa Rita Hills
Santa Ynez Valley
What are the North Coast AVA's?
Mendocino
Mendocino Ridge
Benmore Valley
Clear Lake
Guenoc Valley
Napa Valley
Northern Sonoma
Sonoma Coast
Sonoma Valley
What are the cru Beaujolais?
Fleurie
Morgan
Moulin a Vent
Brouilly
Cote Brouilly
Regnie
Julienas
St. Amour
Chenas
Chiroubles
What are the Maconnaise AOC's?
Macon
Macon Superiure
Macon Village
Pouilly Fuisse
Pouilly Loche
Pouilly Vinzelles
St. Veran
What are the 5 communes of Cotes Challonaise?
Rully
Bouzeron
Mercurey
Givry
Montagny

*no grand cru
What are the Grand Cru of Chablis?
Les Clos
Vaudesir
Valmur
Blanchot
Les Bougros
Les Preuses
Grenouilles
What are the satellites of St Emillion?
Montagne
Lussac
St. George
Puisseguin
Cotes du Castillon
Bordeaux Cotes de Francs
What are the 6 communes on the left bank of Bordeaux?
North to South
St. Estephe
Pauillac
St. Julien
Listrac
Moulis
Margaux
What are the three sweet Chenin Blancs of Anjou?
Bonnezeaux
Quarts de Chaume
Coteaux du Layon
What are two famous Chenin Blancs out of Touraine?
Vouvray
Montlouis Sur Loire
What are the grapes of the Northern and Southern Rhone?
North-Syrah, Viognier, Marsanne, Roussanne
South-Syrah, Grenache, Grenache Blanc, Carignan, Mouvedre, Viognier, Marsanne, Roussanne, Bourbelanc, Picoul Blanc
What are Chinon and Bourgueil?
Wines out of Touraine (Loire)
90% Cabernet Franc
10% Cabernet Sauvignon
What are the districts of Western Australia?
Margaret River
Swan River
Great Southern
What is corbieres known for?
Languedoc Roussillon, its reds are famous
What are the 4 districts of Champagne?
Valle de la Marne
Montagne de Reims
Cotes de Blancs
Cote des Bar
Where are Quincy and Rouilly located?
In Pouilly sur Loire of the Loire Valley
What is Melon de Bourgogne?
Muscadet
What is the soil of Petite Chablis?
Portlandian
What is Smaragd?
Late harvest grapes in Austria
How is Ausbruch made?
adding late harvest non botrysized must to must from the same vineyard that was botrysized
What is Austrias largest wine district?
Weinviertal
What region in Austria has its own classification system?
Wachau
What is largest wine producing region in Germany?
Rheinnhessen
What is the largest red wine region in Germany?
Wurtemburg
What region in Germany is best known for its reds?
Ahr
What are the 13 ambaugabiete of Germany?
Ahr
Baden
Franken
Hessische Bergstrasse
Mittelrhein
Rheingau
Wurrtemburg
Rheinhessen
Mosel
Nahe
Pfalz
Sachsen
Saale Unstrut
Where is Tannat grown?
Madiran - southwest France
What are the red grapes of Languedoc Rouissillon?
Grenach
Syrah
Mouvedre
Cinsault
Carignan
What is Blanquette de Limoux?
Mauzac grape
A sparkling wine from the Languedoc
What are the soil compositions of the north and south Rhone?
North is granite and schist
South is gallettes or large rocks
What is tuffeau?
A chalky limestone soil
What is the dry white wine of Anjou?
Savennieres
What are the 5 first growths of Bordeaux?
Latour
Lafite Rothschild
Mouton Rothschild
Margaux
Haut Brion
What are the 4 regions of the Loire Valley?
Pays Nantais
Anjou
Touraine
Pouilly sur Loire
What is a cantine sociale or cantine cooperative in Italy?
A wine cooperative or wineries owned by a group of members
What is the most planted and most acclaimed grape variety in Wellington New Zealand?
Pinot Noir
What is vigna or vigneto in Italy?
A vineyard
What is the largest producer of Chardonnay in New Zealand?
Hawkes Bay
What is considered to be the Chardonnay capital of New Zealand?
Gisborne
What is the most intensely cultivated vine in Basilicata?
Aglianico
What are the three most popular varieties in Auckland New Zealand?
Merlot
Cabernet Sauvignon
Chardonnay
Who was the first winemaker in New Zealand?
James Busby of 1840
What are the most widely planted grapes in Canterbury New Zealand?
Pinot Noir and Riesling

2/3
When was Chardonnay first introduced to New Zealand?
1830's then dissapeared with phylloxera

Reintroduced in the early 1970's
When did Phylloxera arrive in New Zealand?
1920's
What are the requirements for Vattellina Superiore?
Minimum 90% nebbiolo
Minimum 2 years aged
Minimum 1 year in oak
3 years in oak classifies riserva
At least 1% more alcohol
What was the original mandatory blend of Chianti?
Sangiovese
Canaiolo Nero
Malvasia
Trebbiano
What are the 2 renowned wines that come from the Valpolicella district?
Amarone della Valpolicella
Recioto della Valpolicella
What is the area between the Southern Rhone Valley and the Italian border?
Provence and the French Riviera
When did Merlot appear in New Zealand?
early 1980's
recently (2000) it surpassed plantings of Cabernet Sauvignon
What is Vin Santo?
A madierized dessert wine renowned in Tuscany

Dried out grapes are pressed and put in barrels with a starter culture (typically Vin Santo lees from a previous vintage)
What causes an Amarone to become a Recioto?
If the fermentation is stopped by chilling the must before all sugar has converted to alcohol
What flavors are typical of a Syrah that has been left on the vine too long?
Rubber tires
Fuesal oil
Insipid Blackberry juice
What are the 3 wine districts in Northland New Zealand?
Kaitaia
Bay of Islands
Whangarei
What is the mistral?
The strong wind threatening the vines of Northern Rhone
What is the driest region in France?
Alsace because of the rainshadow from the Vosges Mountains
What is Edelzwicker in Alsace?
A blend of two or more grapes
What is Selection de Grains Nobles and Vengange Tardive?
SGN is a botrytis infected wine
VT is a late harvest that has not been affected by botrytis
What are the aging requirements for non-vintage Champagne?
15 months on lees

Cava is 9 months
What are the aging requirements for vintage Champagne?
36 months on lees
What is a monopole in Burgundy?
A vineyard owned by a single proprieter
What is Passe Tout Grains?
A pinot noir and Gamay blend out of Burgundy
How many Grand Crus are there in Burgundy?
33
What 2 Grand Crus in Burgundy produce both red and white wine?
Corton
Musigny
What are the Cru Artisans in Bordeaux?
A classification for a smaller family owned and run winery

Must be less than 12 acres or 5 hectares in size
What does en primeur mean?
In futures
What is the primary difference between the St Emillion AOC and the classifications?
The Classifications will be proceeded with "en classe"
What is the difference between port style and sherry style production?
Sherrys are fermented to dry and fortified after while ports are fortified during fermentation
What wine category does 2/3 of the wine of Spain fall in?
Table wine

Vinos de la Mesa and Vinos de la Tierra
What are the six terms used on a Spanish lable to indicate age?
Vino Noble
Vino Anejo
Vino Viejo
Vino de Crianza
Reserva
Gran Reserva
What does it mean if a Spanish label says "vino anejo"?
A wine that spent a minimum of 24 months aging in wood or in the bottle
What does it mean if a Spanish label says "vino viejo"?
A wine that spent a minimum of 36 months in a strongly oxidative environment with light oxygen or heat
What does it mean if a Spanish wine label says "vino de crianza"?
A red wine that has aged a minimum of 24 months, 6 in wood

or

a white or rose that has aged 18 months
In what place does Spain rank as a producer of wine in the world?
Third
What place does the vine rank in Spain for total cultivated surface area?
Third

After cereals and olives
Where are nearly half of Spains vineyards located?
Castile La Mancha
What event prompted international recognition of Spanish wines?
French winemakers left their vineyards after they were destroyed by phylloxera, and moved to Spain to produce wine
What is the average PH of wine?
2.9-3.8
What is the wine regulating council at the federal level in Spain?
INDO Instituto Nacional de Denominaciones de Origin
What percent of wine is water?
80-90%

10-20% is organic compounds
What is the sweetness recognition threshold for an average human being?
.5-2.5%

1% is the average
What are teinturiers?
A grape with pigmented pulp
What are the color pigments called in red and white wine?
white - flavones
red - anthocyanins
How many esters are there in wine?
200-300
What is retro-olfaction?
Volatile aromas in the mouth are carried to the olfactory bulb
What is the olfactory epitheleum?
The sensory organ for the sense of smell

A small patch of tissue located at the top and rear of the nasal cavity

Humans have two
What latitude do grape vine thrive at?
30-50 N latitude
What is the typical length of time between budbreak and harvest?
140-160 days

May be as short as 110 or as long as 200
At what temperatures will photosynthesis occur?
Above 50 degrees and below 95 degrees

Ideal between 68-86 degrees
What happens to respiration as the temperature increases?
It increases

rate of respiration doubles each increase of 18 degrees
What type of soil has the least capability to hold water and nutrients?
Sand
What type of soil holds water the best?
clay
What is the formula for the process of fermentation?
C6H12O6 > 2C2H5OH + 2CO2
What does wild yeast fermentation cause an increase of?
acetic acid (vinegar)
ethyl acetate (nail polish remover)
glycerol
high alcohols
SO2 production
acetaldehydes
What is aqueous extraction?
Another name for cold soaking
What type of fermentation utilizes enzymatic as opposed to alcoholic?
Wholeberry fermentation
What is retroussage?
Scooping in Champagne production
What is cepage?
The blending process in Champagne production
What is poinetage?
Shaking the bottle in Champagne production to make sure all of the wine is in contact with the yeast
To what percentage is sherry fortified to?

(fino vs oloroso)
15.5% for finos
18-24% for olorosos
What does a fino sherry become if the flor dies?
Amontillado
What happens if the flor in a fino gets heavier and it is grown in San Lucar Barameda?
Becomes a manzanilla
What is an oloroso called when it becomes fino like?
Palo Cortado
How many vinos de Calidad Con Indicacion Geografica are there in Spain?
4
How many DO's are there in Spain?
About 60
What are the DOCa's in Spain?
Rioja
Priorat
Ribera Del Duoro (as of 2008)
How long must a wine in Spain have DO status before becoming a DOCa?
At least 10 years
How many Vinos de Pagos are there in Spain?
Five all in La Mancha
Which two varietals are used for Bourgogne Passe-tout-Grains?
Pinot Noir and Gamay
Name the four "Noble" varietals of Alsace
Pinot Gris
Muscat
Gewurtztraminer
Riesling
Hunter Valley is a GI of which region?
New South Whales
What is the AOC of chateau Haut Brion?
Pessac Leognan
How many Ambaugebieten are there?
13
What are the Ambaugebieten of Germany?
Ahr
Baden
Franken
Mittelrhein
Nahe
Pfalz
Hessische Bergstrasse
Wurtemberg
Rheingau
Rheinhessen
Mosel-Saar-Ruwer
Saale Uchsen
Sachsen
What is the minimum % required for varietal labeling in Chile?
85% for EU export
What is the AOC for the still red, white and rose wines of Champagne?
Coteaux Champenoisse
What are the three most important native varietals used in Cava production?
Macabeo
Parelleda
Xarel-lo
What are the DOCG's of Tuscany?
Chianti Classico, Brunello di Monticello, Vino Nobile de Montepulciano, Vernacia di San Gimignano,Morellino di Scansano, Carmignano, Chianti
Name the regions of the Western Cape
Lowlands
Highlands
Islay
Speyside
The Ohio River Valley AVA covers parts of which states?
Ohio
Indiana
Kentucky
West Virginia
What is the most widely grown red varietal of the Medoc?
Merlot
What are the Aoc's within the Medoc?
Paulliac
Listrac
Haut-Medoc
Pessac Leognan
Margaux
Moulis
Fronsac
St. Julien
St. Estephe
Claire and Eden Valleys are known for which varietal?
Riesling
What are the primary varietals of red Port?
Tinto Roriz
Touriga Nacional
Tinta Barroca
Tinta Cao
Touriga Francisca
Touriga Franca
Trincadera
Donzelinho Tinto
Bastardo
What are the primary varietals for white port?
Arinto
Donzelinho Branco
Gouveio (Verdelho)
Malvasio Fino
Rabigato
Viosinho
What is the main varietal for Hermitage Rouge?
Syrah
What are the Grand Cru of Chablis?
Vaudesirs
Les Clos
Grenouilles
Les Preuses
Bougros
Valmur
Blanchot
What sparkling wine DOC of the Veneto is named after its primary varietal?
Prosecco
What is the local term for malbec grown in the Loire Valley?
Auxerrois
Cot in Bordeaux
What charity organization holds its yearly auction on the third Sunday of November?
Hospices de Beaune
What is the German term for Pinot Noir?
Spatburgunder
What is remontage?
Pumping over the cap to prevent drying out and increase extraction during fermentation
Is Wellington on the North Island or South Island?
North Island
What is the governing body of Canadian wine and winemaking?
VQA
Vintners Quality Alliance
Who produces "Hill of Grace"?
Hentschke
What is the term for the late harvest wines of Vouvray?
Moulleux
The best wines of the Mosel come from which Bereich?
Mosel-Saar-Ruwer
What is the % requirement for varietal labeling in Argentina?
85%
What are the AOC's of the Maconnais?
St. Verand
Pouilly Fuisse
St. Amour
Macon-Village
Macon Superior
Pouilly Vinzelle
Pouilly Loche
What are the AOC's of Bordeaux that can produce sweet wine?
Sauternes
Barsac
Cerons
Loupiac
St. Croix du Mont
Cadillac
Bordeaux Haut Benauge
Bordeaux Cote-du-Francs Liquoreux
Graves Superior
Pinotage is a cross of which two varietals?
Pinot Noir and Cinsault
Where is Pinotage primarily grown?
South Africa
What is the principal white varietal of the Rais Baixas?
Albarino
What are the DOCG's that utilize Nebbiolo?
Ghattinara
Ghemme
Spanna
Barolo
Barbaresco
What are the AVA's of Washington State?
Red Mountain
Horse Heaven Hills
Snipes Mountain
Lake Chelan
Puget sound
Rattlesnake Hills
Yakima Valley
Columbia Valley
Walla Walla Valley
Wahluke Slope
What are the varietals used in the production of madiera?
Sercial
Verdehlo
Bual
Malmsey
What is the required % for varietal labeling in Australia?
85%
What are the major growing regions of champagne?
Montagne de Reims
Cotes de Blancs
Valle de la Marne
Aube
Cotes de Sezanne
What is the range of sweetness, in grams/liter, for Brut Champagne?
0-15 g/l
What is the range of sweetness, in grams/liter, for Brut Champagne?
0-15 g/l
What is the range of sweetness, in grams/liter, for Brut Champagne?
0-15 g/l
What is the range of sweetness, in grams/liter, for Brut Champagne?
0-15 g/l
What is the Sauvignon Blanc only AOC of Burgundy?
St. Bris
What is the Sauvignon Blanc only AOC of Burgundy?
St. Bris
What is the Sauvignon Blanc only AOC of Burgundy?
St. Bris
What is the Sauvignon Blanc only AOC of Burgundy?
St. Bris
What is the term for Alsatian wine made from specially selected rotten grapes?
Edelfaule
What is the term for Alsatian wine made from specially selected rotten grapes?
Edelfaule
What is the term for Alsatian wine made from specially selected rotten grapes?
Edelfaule
What is the term for Alsatian wine made from specially selected rotten grapes?
Edelfaule
What "grain" must dominate in Bourbon?
Corn
What "grain" must dominate in Bourbon?
Corn
What "grain" must dominate in Bourbon?
Corn
What "grain" must dominate in Bourbon?
Corn
What is the minimum percentage of corn required in Bourbon?
51%
What is the minimum percentage of corn required in Bourbon?
51%
What is the minimum percentage of corn required in Bourbon?
51%
What is the minimum percentage of corn required in Bourbon?
51%
McLaren Vale is a GI of what region?
South Australia
McLaren Vale is a GI of what region?
South Australia
McLaren Vale is a GI of what region?
South Australia
McLaren Vale is a GI of what region?
South Australia
What is the primary varietal of Cote Rotie?
Syrah
What is the primary varietal of Cote Rotie?
Syrah
What is the primary varietal of Cote Rotie?
Syrah
What is the primary varietal of Cote Rotie?
Syrah
What varietal can be used with Syrah in Cote Rotie?
Viognier
What varietal can be used with Syrah in Cote Rotie?
Viognier
What varietal can be used with Syrah in Cote Rotie?
Viognier
What varietal can be used with Syrah in Cote Rotie?
Viognier
What are the three primary varietals of White Bordeaux?
Sauvignon Blanc
Muscadelle
Semillon
What are the three primary varietals of White Bordeaux?
Sauvignon Blanc
Muscadelle
Semillon
What are the three primary varietals of White Bordeaux?
Sauvignon Blanc
Muscadelle
Semillon
What are the three primary varietals of White Bordeaux?
Sauvignon Blanc
Muscadelle
Semillon
What is the name for the sacramental wine of Tuscany that is made from dried grapes?
Vin Santo
What is the name for the sacramental wine of Tuscany that is made from dried grapes?
Vin Santo
What is the name for the sacramental wine of Tuscany that is made from dried grapes?
Vin Santo
What is the name for the sacramental wine of Tuscany that is made from dried grapes?
Vin Santo
What is the German name for an individual vineyard site?
Einzellage
What is the name of the appelation shared by both Napa and Sonoma counties?
Los carneros
What are the regions of New Zealands South Island?
Otago
Nelson
Marlborough
Canterbury
What are the classified growths of St. Estephe?
Calon-Segur
Montrose
Lafon Rochet
Cos Labory
Cos
What region of Austria utilizes a unique naming system for its wines?
Wachau
The letters RM on a bottle of Champagne indicate what?
A wine that was made and bottled by the owner of the property
What are the Pradikats in order from lowest to highest must weight?
Kabinett
Spatlese
Auslese
Beerenauslese
Eiswein
Trockenbeerenauslese
Constantia is historically famous for wines from what varietal?
Muscat
What are the AOC's of the entre-Deux-Mers
Entre-Deux-Mers
Entre-Deux-Mers Haut Benauge
Bordeaux Haut Benauge
Cadillac
Cotes de Bordeaux St.Macaire
Graves de Vayres
Loupiac
Premieres Cotes De Bordeaux
Saint Croix du Mont
Sainte-Foy-Bordeaux
What is a synonym for Nebbiolo?
Spanna
Chiavenesca
Picotendro
What are the synonyms for Sangiovese?
Prugnolo, Brunello. Morellino, and Calabrese
What are the red varietals permitted for Rioja?
Tempranillo
Garnacha
Mazuelo
Graciano
Monastrell de Rioja
Maturano Tinto
Maturano
What are the white varietals permitted for Rioja?
Garnacha Blanca
Malvasia
Viura
Verdejo
Sauvignon Blanc
Chardonnay
Turruntes
Maturana Blanca
The Rapel Valley sits within what larger region?
Central Valley VA
This village of the Cote challonaise relies on Aligote instead of chardonnay.
Bouzeron
T or F

Vinho Verde is a DOC for white wine only.
False
What is Hunter Valley Riesling another name for?
Semillon
What style of wine is produced in the Quarts de Chaume AOC?
Sweet white
What varietal is used to produce wines in the Quarts de Chaume AOC?
Chenin Blanc
What are the sub-AVA's of the Willamette Valley?
Ribbon Ridge
McMinnville
Eola-Amity Hills
Chehalem
Yamhill Carlton
Dundee Hills
Red Hills
Douglas Count
T or F

Chateauneuf du Pape can be red, white, or rose.
False

no Rose
What is the German name for dry?
Trocken
Is Hawkes Bay in the South Island or North Island?
North
In what year were the vineyards of the Medoc first classified?
1855
What are the sparkling wine DOCG's of Lombardy?
Franciocorta
Oltrepo Pavese Metodo Classico
What are the red Grand Crus of Burgundy?
Corton
Corton Pugets
Corton Bressandes
Which level of French wine is in the process of being phased out?
VDQS
What are the French VDQS?
Gros Plant de Pays Nantais, Fiefs Vendeens, Côteaux d’Ancenis, Haut-Poitou, Côtes d’Auvergne. Moselle, Châteaumeillant, Vin de Bugey, Roussette de Bugey, Vin de Bugey-Cerdon, Côteaux du Quercy, Côtes de Millau, Côtes du Saint Mont, Côtes du Brulhois, Vins de Lavilledieu, Vin d’Entraygues et du Fels, St. Sardos, Tursan and Vin d’Estaing
What is the name of the famous soil of Coonawarra?
Terra Rosa
What is the AOC for sparkling wines of Alsace?
Cremant d' Alsace
What are the generic AOC's of Bordeaux?
Bordeaux, Bordeaux Clairet, Bordeaux Sec, Bordeaux Rose, Cremant de Bordeaux, Bordeaux Superieur, Brodeaux Superieur Clairet, Bordeaux Superieur Rose
What AOC of the Rhone Valley allows for Rose only?
Tavel
What is the term for the unfermented must used for sweetness adjustment in German wines?
Sussreserve
The first and last classifications of Graves occured in what year?
1959
What region produces the majority of Argentinean wine?
Mendoza
What are the white Grand Crus of Cote de Beaune?
Corton
Corton Charlemagne
Le Montrachet
Batard-Montrachet
Criots-Batard-Montrachet
Bienvenues-Batard-Montrachet
Chevalier-Montrachet
Clos du Mesnil is a Monopole Champagne made by what producer?
Krug
This coastal DOC of Tuscany is known for its quality of Bordeaux blends.
Bolgheri
What is the highest level of Spanish wines?
DOCa or DOCQ
What are the DOCa's of Spain?
La Rioja
Priorat
Ribera del Duoro
In what year was Alsace's Grand Cru legislation written and when did it go into effect?
1975
1983
What is the varietal of Setubal DOC?
Moscatel
It is a fortified sweet wine
What was the first AVA?
Augusta
What is the principal varietal of Pomerol and St Emilion?
Merlot
What are the DOCG's of Campania?
Taurasi
Fiano di Avellino
Greco di Tufo
Which Australian GI is known for its "liqeur" wines?
Rutherglen
In what region does Rutherglen sit?
Victoria
What were the six communes originally included in the Medoc classification of 1855?
Paulliac
Margaux
Ludon
St. Laurent
St. Estephe
St. Julien
Which region of New Zealand is gaining fame for the quality of its Pinot Noir?
Central Otago
Name a single quinta port and its producer.
Quinta de Vargellas -Taylor
Quinto do Bomfin - Dow
Quinta da Cavadinha - Warre
Quinta dos Malvedos - Graham

*will throw sediment, should be decanted
What are the three major types of Sherry?
Fino
oloroso
Palo Cortado
What is the German term for noble rot?
Edelfaule
Which country utilizes "Wines of Origin" for its appelations?
South Africa
Name an Islay Malt
Caol Lla
Laphroiag
Lagavulin
Ardbeg
Bowmore
Kilchoman
Bruichladdich
Bunnahabhain
The western Loire produces primarily white wines from what varietal?
Melon
What are the DOCG's of the Veneto?
Bardolino Superiore
Soave Superiore
Recioto di Soave
Recioto di Gambellara
Prosecco di Conegliano-Valdobbiadene
Colli Asolani
Amarone
What is Switzerlands primary white varietal?
Chasselas
What are the Grand Crus of Gevrey-Chambertin?
Le Chambertin
Chambertin-Cloz de Beze
Charmes-Chambertin
Mazoyeres-Chambertin
Latricieres-Chambertin
Griottes-Chambertin
Chapelle-Chambertin
Mazis-Chambertin
Ruchottes-Chambertin
What are the wine regions of New Zealands North Island?
Northland
Auckland
Hawkes Bay
Bay of Plenty
Martinborough
Gisborne
Waikato
Wellington
Which country uses the term "Geographical Indicators" for their wine appelations?
Australia
What are the classified growths of Graves/Pessac-Leognan?
find answer
What are the DOCG;s of Friulu-Venezia-Giulia?
Colli Orientali del Friuli Picolit
Ramandolo
From what varietal is Ramandolo made from?
Verduzzo
What is an Ambaugebeit?
A major winegrowing region. Literally a growing "range"
What is an Ambaugebeits relation to a Bereich?
There may be one or multiple Bereichen within an Ambaugebeit
What are the three major rivers of Bordeaux?
Gironde
Garonne
Dordogne
A large portion of the "Sauvignon Blanc" planted in Chile is actually what varietal?
Sauvignonasse or Tocai Friuliano
What is considered the best soil type for Palomino in Sherry production?
Chalky white Aburizza
What are the Rhone Valleys red wine only AOC's?
Cornas
Cote Rotie
Which AOC of Alsace allows for the use of Chardonnay?
Cremant d' Alsace
What are the sub AVA's of Napa Valley?
Los Carneros
Atlas Peak
Wild Horse Canyon
Stags Leap
Rutherford
oakville
Oak Knoll
Mt Veeder
Chiles Valley
Yountville
Diamond Mountain
Spring Mountain
St. Helena
Howell Mountain
What varietals are permitted for the making of Cognac?
Ugni Blanc
Colombard
Folle Blanche
Name the two Grand Crus that are shared by Puligny-Montrachet and Chassagne-Montrachet
Le Montrachet
Batard-Montrachet
What is the primary varietal of Juras Vin Jaune?
Savignin
What is the term for the removal of sediment from a bottle of Champagne?
Degorgement
How many years must Colheita or Vintage Madeira be aged prior to release?
22 years
Australias Yarra Valley is best known for what varietal?
Pinot Noir
What is the governing body of South African wines?
KWV
What is the minimum aging for Barolo?
36 months (3years) with 24 months (2years( in wood
What are the satellite appelations of St. Emilion?
St Georges
Montagne
Puisseguin
Lussac
What is the base for Tia Maria?
Rum
What is the base for Drambuie?
Scotch
What are the sparkling wine AOC's of the Loire Valley?
Vouvray
Saumur Mousseux
Cremant de la Loire
Montlouis-sur-Loire Petillant
Mousseux
What is the primary varietal of Bairrada?
Baga
What are the Grand Crus of Gevrey-Chambertin?
Le Chambertin
Chambertin-Cloz de Beze
Charmes- Chambertin
Mazoyeres-Chambertin
Griottes-chambertin
Chapelle-Chambertin
Mazis-Chambertin
Ruchottes-Chambertin
What is the only varietal permitted in Cremant d'Alsace Rose?
Pinot Noir
What is the primary difference between the production of Armagnac and Cognac?
Armagnac is distilled once
Cognac is distilled twice
What varietal is the Jumilla best known for?
Monastrell
What are the two generic AOC's of the Loire Valley?
Cremant de la Loire and Rose de la Loire
What are the white wine producing DOCG's of Tuscany?
Vernaccia di San Gimignano
What is the sweet wine producing DOCG of Tuscany?
Elba Aleatico Passito
What are the five first growths of Bordeaux?
Chateau Latour
Chateau Lafite-Rothschild
Chateau Mouton-Rothschild
Chateau Haut Brion
Chateau Margaux
What are the second growths of Margaux?
Chateau Brane-Cantenac
Chateau Durfort Viviens
Chateau Lascombes
Chateau Rauzan Segla
Chateau Rauzan Gassies
What are the second growths of Paulliac?
Chateau Pichon-Lalande
Chateau Pichon-Longeuville Baron
What is the varietal percentage required for QmP wines?
85%
Which producer makes its top wine a vineyard of pre-phylloxera Touriga Nacional?
Quinta do Noval
What is Chenin Blanc referred to as in South Africa?
Steen
In what region does the Great Southern GI sit in?
South Australia
What is Le Rape?
%5 of a crop of Chateauneuf du Pape that must be sent to be distilled
What appellation covers the higher slopes of the Cotes de Beaune and Cotes de Nuits?
The Hautes-Cotes
What is the term for a small amount of sugar and wine added to Champagne before the final cork is placed on?
Liqueur de Expedition
What is the primary varietal of Tokaji?
Furmint
What native Italian varietals best wines come from the plains of Rotaliano?
Teroldego
What is the flavor of Kirsch?
Cherry
The Hunter Valley GI sits within what GI?
New South whales
What is the Hungarian term for Noble Rot?
Aszu
What is the Italian term for Noble Rot?
Muffato
Which Bordeaux varietal has found great success in Argentina?
Malbec
In what year was the last classification of St. Emilion?
2006
What specialty of Rust is made from completely shriveled grapes which are often wetted with fresh juice for pressing?
Ausbruch
What is the grape of Muscadet?
Melon
What is the term for lees aged Muscadet?
Muscadet Sur Lie
What is the minimum age at which a NV Champagne may be sold?
18 months
What is the top level of German wine?
Qualitatswein mit Pradikat
Once thought to be Merlot, this Bordeaux varietal is making a name for Chilean wines.
Carmenere
What are the cru of Beaujolais?
St Amour
Moulin-a-Vent
Chiroubles
Regnie
Brouilly
Cote de Brouilly
Fleurie
Morgon
Chenas
Julienas
What varietal is the Marlborough region famous for?
Sauvignon Blanc
Is Marlborough on the North of South Island?
South
What is the principal white grape of Rueda?
Verdejo
What coutries wine structure was altered by Gorias Law?
Italy
What did Gorias Law implement?
The IGT level of wine in Italy
What are the classified growths of Margaux?
Brane-Cantenac
Durfort-Vivens
lascombes
Rausan-Segla
Rausan-Gassies
Desmirail d' Issan
Palmer
Kirwan
Boyd-Cantenac
Cantenac-Brown
Ferriere
Giscours
Malescot-St. Exupery
Marquis d'Alseme Becker
Marquis de Terms
Pouget
Prieure-Lichine
Dauzac
Du Terte
What are the varietals of chateauneuf du Pape?
Greanche
Syrah
Mouvedre
Counoise
Cinsault
Muscardin
Picardin
Terret Noir
Clairette
Vaccarese
Bourbelenc
Picpoul
In what departments do the vineyards of Alsace sit?
Haut Rhin
Bas Rhin
What are the two important tributaries of the Mosel?
The Saar and Ruwer
What is the name of the spirit in Northwestern France that is made from apples and pears?
Calvados
What is the name of the fungus responsible for the late harvest wines of Sauternes?
Botrytis Cinerea
What is the Vinho Regional of the Duoro Valley?
Duriense
The Barossa Valley GI sits in what region?
South Australia
What are the DOCG's of Peidmont that produce sparkling wine?
find answer
What counties are included in whole/or in part of the Central Coast AVA?
Monterey
San Benito
Santa Cruz
Madera
San Mateo
Fresno
Alameda
Contra Costa
Santa Clara
San Luis Obispo
Santa Barbara
What varietal is also known as Cape Riesling?
Crochen Blanc
What is Passerillage?
Drying or shriveling on the vine of healthy grapes
What village of Rheingau is known for the quality of its red wines?
Assmannshausen
What term literally means "Selected dried berries"?
Beerenauslese
What Chateau was promoted from 2nd to 1st growth?
Mouton-Rothschild
What year was Chateau Mouton-Rothschild promoted from 2nd to 1st growth?
1973
What are the Grand Cru of Morey-St. Denis?
Clos St. Denis
Clos de la Roche
Clos de Tart
Clos de Lambrays
Bonnes Mares
What is the primary varietal of Santorini?
Assyrtiko
What style of wines are made in Santorini?
Dry white and Vin Santo
What area sits between the Gironne and Dardogne Rivers?
Entre-Deaux.Mers
What type of wine is produced in the Entre-Deaux Mers?
Dry whites
What is the primary varietal of Oltrepo Pavese Metodo Classico?
Pinot Nero
What are the synonyms of tempranillo?
Ulle de Lebre
Cencibel
Tinto Fino
Tinto de Toro
Tinto Roriz
Ojo de Liebre
Aragonez
Tinto Madrid
Tinto de la Pais
What is the term for a single vintage Tawny?
Colheita
Which village of Burgundy has an AOC for Red, White and Rose?
Marsannay
What geographic feature most influences the vineyards of Argentina?
The proximity of the Andes
What is the minimum temperature for German Eiswein?
-7degrees
Cuvee Winston Churchhill is the luxury Cuvee of what producer?
Pol Roger
What is the capacity of the traditional Bordeaux barrel?
225L
What are the Rhone Valley AOC's for Viognier?
Condrieu and Chateau Grillet
What is the name of Penfolds flagship wine?
Grange Hermitage
What is the primary varietal of Penfolds Grange Hermitage?
Shiraz
What island does Auckland sit on?
North Island
What is the white varietal of sancerre?
Sauvignon Blanc
What is the red varietal of Sancerre?
Pinot Noir
What are the sub-AVA's of Sonoma county?
Sonoma Coast
Northern Sonoma
Sonoma Mountain
Rockpile
Chalk Hill
Russian River Valley
Alexander Valley
Knights Valley
Green Valley of Russian River VAlley
Carneros
Dry Creek
Bennett Valley
Which wind current is responsible for mitigating the climate in chile?
Humboldt
What is the Alsatian term for wine made from late harvest, generally healthy grapes?
Vendange Tardive
Which Ambaugebiet is known for its quality of red wines?
Ahr
What is the minimum aging requirements for Cognac?
24 months
Where is the Gavi DOCG located?
Piedmont, Italy
What is the varietal used for the Gavi DOCG?
Cortese
What white varietals are permitted for use in Burgundy?
Chardonnay
Aligote
Pinot Blanc
Pinot Beurot
Sacy
What mountain range seperates Sonoma and Napa Valleys?
Mayacamas
What are the four WO regions of the Western Cape?
Coastal Region
Olifants River
Breede River Valley
Klein Karoo
What is the most widely planted varietal of the Medoc?
Merlot
What is the traditional varietal for Egri Bikaver?
Kadarka
What year were the vineyards of Graves FIRST classified?
1959
In what year were the vineyards of Graves LAST classified?
1959
What are the five major red grapes of Boedeaux?
Cabernet Sauvignon
Cabernet Franc
Merlot
Malbec
Petite Verdot
What are the three major white grapes of Bordeaux?
Semillon
Muscat
Sauvignon Blanc
Australias famous regions of Barossa and McLaren Vale sit within what region?
South Australia
What is the appellation for Sassicaia?
Bolgheri
Name the AOC for Cote Challonaisse?
Ruilly
Givry
Montagny
Bouzeron
Mercurey
Bourgogne-Cote Challonaisse
Bourgogne-Cote de Couchois
What are the two primary types of port?
Ruby and Tawny
What are the major growing regions of Champagne?
Cotes de Blanc
Montagne de Reims
Cotes de Sezanne
Aube
Valle de la Marne
What is the name of the main river of Rioja?
Ebro
Central Otago is making a name for itself with which varietal?
Pinot Noir
Which Ambaugebiet is known for its quality of red wines?
Ahr
What is the minimum aging requirements for Cognac?
24 months
Where is the Gavi DOCG located?
Piedmont, Italy
What is the varietal used for the Gavi DOCG?
Cortese
What white varietals are permitted for use in Burgundy?
Chardonnay
Aligote
Pinot Blanc
Pinot Beurot
Sacy
What mountain range seperates Sonoma and Napa Valleys?
Mayacamas
What are the four WO regions of the Western Cape?
Coastal Region
Olifants River
Breede River Valley
Klein Karoo
What is the most widely planted varietal of the Medoc?
Merlot
What is the traditional varietal for Egri Bikaver?
Kadarka
What year were the vineyards of Graves FIRST classified?
1959
In what year were the vineyards of Graves last classified?
1959
What are the five major grapes of Bordeaux?
Merlot
Malbec
Cabernet Sauvignon
Cabernet Franc
Petite Verdot
What are the three major white grapes of Bordeaux?
Semillon
Muscat
Sauvignon Blanc
Within what region are Barossa and McLaren Vale found?
South Australia
What is the appelation for Sassicaia?
Bolgheri
What are the AOC of Cotes Challonaisse?
Ruilly
Givry
Mercurey
Montagny
Bourgogne-Cote Challonaisse
Bourgogne-Cote de Couchois
What are the two primary types of port?
Ruby and Tawny
What are the major growing regions of Champagne?
Cotes de Sezanne
Valle de la Marnes
Cotes de Blancs
Montagne de Reims
Aube
What is the name of the river of Rioja?
Ebro
Central Otago is making a name for itself with which varietal?
Pinot Noir
What are the second labels of the 1st growths of Bordeaux?
Les Forts de Latour
Carruades de Lafite-Rothschild
La Petite Mouton de Mouton-Rothschild
Pavillon Rouge de Chateau Margaux
Bahans-Haut Brion
What are the villages that may append their name to the Cotes-du-Rhone Villages AOC?
Chusclan
Visan
St Gervais
Saint Panteleons-les-Vignes
Plan de Dieu
Signargues
Saint Maurice
Laudun
Carianne
Massif d'Uchaux
Puymeras
Rasteau
Roaix
Rousset-les-Vignes
Sablet
Valreas
Rochegude
Seguret
What is the term for German wines that contain no more than 18g/l RS and 10g/l acid?
Halbtrocken
This "Noble Blend" of Alsace allows for blending a variety of local grapes.
Edelzwicker
What is the primary variety of Banyuls and Banyuls Grand Cru?
Grenache
What are the AVA of Mendocino County?
Mendocino
Yorkville Highlands
Mendocino Ridge
Redwood Valley
Anderson Valley
Cole Ranch
Covelo
Dios Ranch
Potter Valley
Name five Vin Doux Naturel produced outside of France.
Port
Madeira
Sherry
Malaga
Liqueur Tokay
What is the name for the series of letters that must appear on a QmP wine?
Amtliche Prufnummer
What are the AVA's of Washington State?
Columbia Valley
Walla Walla
Wahluke Slope
Red Mountain
Horse Heaven Hills
Snipes Mountain
Lake Chelan
Puget Sound
Rattlesnake Hills
Yakima Valley
What is the primary grape of Chinon?
Cabernet Franc
What is the secondary grape of Chinon?
Cabernet Sauvignon
What are the DOCG of Le Marches?
Vernaccia de Seraptrona
Conero
What method of closed container sparkling wine production is named for its inventor?
Charmat Method
What two varietals make up the majority of white Bordeaux?
Semillon and Sauvignon Blanc
What are the Grand Crus of Alsace?
find answer
What are the District WO of the Coastal Region?
Cape Point
Darling
Paarl
Stellenbosch
Tygerberg
Swartland
Tulbagh
What is the principal varietal of Montilla-Moriles?
Pedro Ximenez
What is the difference between Crianza and Sin Crianza?
Crianza has experienced some wood aging. Sin Crianza has not
What are the three primary varietals of Champagne?
Pinot Noir
Chardonnay
Pinot Meunier
Quality wise, which is the most important white German varietal?
Riesling
Quality wise, what is the most important red German varietal?
Spatburgunder
What is the minimum aging requirement for Vintage champagne?
60 months
What are the classified growths of St. Julien?
Leoville-las-Cases
Leoville-Barton
Leoville-Poyferre
Ducru-Beaucaillou
Beycheville
Lagrange
Langoa-Barton
Branaire-Ducru
Gruaud-Larose
Talbot
St. Pierre
What are the district WO of Breede River Valley?
Breedkloof
Worcester
Robertson
Swellendam
The Yarra Valley GI sits within what region?
Victoria
What is the term for the unique aging/treatment process of Madeira?
Estufagem
What are the Grand Crus of Chambolle Musigny?
Le Musigny
Bonnes Mares
What are the AOC's of the Loire Valley that can make late-harvest wines from Chenin Blanc?
Vouvray
Quarts de Chaume
Savennieres
Coteaux de l'Aubance
Bonnezeaux
Coteaux de Saumur
Montlouis-sur-Loire
Anjou-Coteaux de Loire
Coteaux du Layon
What is the main grape of Valpolicella?
Corvina
What is the secondary grape of Valpolicella?
Rondinella
What are the grapes used in Valpolicella?
Corvina
Rondinella
Molinara
Rossignola
Barbera
Sangiovese
Negrara Trentina
What two terms following Deutscher indicate sparkling wine made from German grapes?
Sekt or Schaumwein
The Martinique AOC is for the production of what?
Rhum Agricole
What are the sweet wine appelations of Bordeaux?
Sauternes
Barsac
Cerons
Loupiac
St. Croix du Mont
Cadillac
Bordeaux-Haut Benauge
Bordeaux Cotes-de-Francs Liquoreux
Graves Superieur
What is the name of the Vin de Liqueur of champagne?
Ratafia
Which of these is not a generally declared vintage for port, 1994, 1986, 2003, 1983?
1986
What are the Grand Crus of Vosne Romanee?
Romanee-Conti
La Tache
Romanee-St. Vivant
Echezeaux
Grand Echezeaux
La Grand Rue
La Romanee
What is the maximum % of Cabernet allowed in Chianti?
10%
The grapes for Sauternes are usually selected in multiple passes called...?
Tries
Cot is a synonym for which varietal?
Malbec
Auxerrois is a synonym for what varietal?
Malbec
What GI does the Margaret River GI sit in?
Western Australia
What are the varietals of Orvieto?
Grechetto
Dupreggio
Procanico
Verdelho
Malvasia
What are the AVA's of Monterrey County?
Arroyo Grand Valley
Carmel Valley
Chalone
Hames Valley
San Bernabe
San Lucas
San Antonio Valley
Santa Lucia Highlands
What are the wine regions of New Zealands North Island?
Auckland
Northland
Hawkes Bay
Bay of Plenty
Gisborne
Martinborough
Wellington
What are the wine regions of New Zealands South Island?
Otago
Marlborough
Nelson
Canterbury
What are the three major soil nutrients required by grapevines?
Nitrogen (N)
Phosphorus (P)
Potassium (K)
What is the species of a grape?
The plant genus Vitis
What is the clone of a grape?
Vines descended from a single plant from cuttings (asexual reproduction)
What is a grape variety?
A sub-species of a grape.
i.e. Chardonnay
What is the progression of a grapevines annual cycle?
Shoot and Leaf Growth
Bud Break
Flowering
Berry Set
Veraison
Harvest
What are the inputs of photosythesis?
Sunlight
Carbon Dioxide
Water
What are the products of photosynthesis?
Sugar
Oxygen
What is the temperature range during which photosynthesis can occur?
50-95 degrees F
Define Macroclimate
The climate of the overall region
Define Microclimate
The climate directly surrounding the vine or canopy
Define Mesoclimate
The typical weather within a specific vineyard
What soil pest spreads fan leaf virus?
The nematode soil pest Xiphinema index
How does phylloxera damage a vine?
it feeds on the roots of the vine thus allowing bacteria and funghi to spread throughout
What attributes does a balanced vine possess?
Shoot length is between 3-4 feet long
Shoot density allows most, if not all, exposure to sunlight throughout the day
Shoot girth is smaller in width than your middle finger
There are few, if any, lateral shoots on the vine
The berry size should be small for the specific variety.
Define sustainable viticultural practices.
Goal is to leave the land for the next generation in better condition than it was when inherited
Same goals as Organic and Biodynamic but does not adhere to the rules as strictly
Define Organic Viticulture.
An attempt to build the soil, protect the environment, encourage biodiversity, and protect the health of employees and consumers.
Uses compost and manure and eliminates all synthetic products.
Allows use of sulfur and copper.
Define Biodynamic Viticulture
Developed by Rudolph Steiner in 1929
The alignment of the planets and phases of the moon direct the course of work done in the vineyard and the winery.
Use of agrochemicals and conventional fertilizers is prohibitted.
Bordeaux mixture and sulpher is allowed.
What is Steen?
Chenin Blanc in South Africa
What is a synonym for true Riesling?
White Riesling or Johanisberg Riesling
What is a common synonym for Pinot Grigio?
Pinot Gris
Fume Blanc is made from what grape variety?
A Sauvignon Blanc that has seen oak.
What are the profile charactersitics of Chardonnay?
Naturally High in Extract
Ripens to High Sugar Levels (which can equate to high alcohol levels in the wine)
Runs the risk of being low in acid
What are the profile characteristics of Sauvignon Blanc?
Aromatic
High in Acid
What are the profile characteristics of Riesling?
High Acid
Ripens to high sugar levels, often finished with some residual sugar in the wine.
Long lived
What are the profile characteristics of Chenin Blanc?
High Acid
High Extract
Aromatic
Long Lived
Very dry to sweet
What are the profile characteristics of Pinot Grigio?
Low or high acid.
High Extract
Can have little or no aroma
Can have subtle fruit and floral notes
What are the profile characteristics of Gewurtztraminer?
Ripens to high sugar levels which can equate to high alcohol levels.
High Extract
Low Acid
Aromatic
Very dry to sweet
What are the profile characteristics of Viognier?
Profoundly aromatic.
Low Acid
Ripens to high sugar levels which can equate to high alcohol levels.
High Extract
What are the profile characteristics of Muscat?
High Alcohol.
High Extract
Highly Aromatic
Good Acids
What are the profile characteristics of Semillon?
Subdued aromas
Waxy/lanolin texture
Susceptible to botrytis
Long lived
What is the aromatic profile of Chardonnay?
Flint/stone
Citrus
Melon
Pineapple
Banana
Apricot
Butter
Smoke
Burnt Sugar
Caramel
Green Apple
Pear
Nuts
Honey
Peach
Ginger
Vanilla
Oak
Butterscotch
Nutmeg
What is the aromatic profile of Sauvignon Blanc?
Melon
Bell Pepper
Hay
Pineapple
Musk
Celery
Kiwi
Stone
Gunflint
Gooseberry
Herbs
Jalapeno
Pear
Fig
Grass
Cats Pee
Lemon
Toast
Lemongrass
Grapefruit
Asparagus
Nuts
Lemon-lime
What is the aromatic profile of Riesling?
Apple
Passionfruit
Pineapple
Honeysuckle
Mint
Juicyfruit gum
Talc
Orange Blossom
Tarragon
Hyacinth
Slate
Stone
Peach
Lime
honey
Apricot
Jasmine
Ginger
Lemon Curd
Fennel
Grapefruit
Kiwi
Minerals
What is the aromatic profile of Chenin Blanc?
Creme Fraiche, Clotted Cream, Buttermilk, Sour Cream, Plain Yogurt
Almond, Straw Flowers, Hazelnut, Ripe Grain, Marzipan, Nuts, Toasted Bread, Lemon, Melon, Apricot, Apple, Pear, Dried Flowers, Orange Peel
What is the aromatic profile of Pinot Grigio/Pinot Gris?
Apple
Butter
Mineral
Almond
Steel
Honey
Peach
Lemon
Pear
Chalk
Flint
Orange Blossom
Honeysuckle
Cream
What is the aromatic profile characteristics of Gewurtztraminer?
Nutmeg
Citrus Peel
Lychee Nut
Mace
Bayberry
Grapefruit
Rose
Ginger
Sandalwood
Cardamon
Allspice
Pine
What are the aromatic profile characteristics of Viogner?
Grass
Honey
Apricot
Citrus
Orange peel
Musk
Passion fruit
Kiwi
Peach
Gooseberry
Ginger
Honeysuckle
Tangerine
Guave
Mango
Lemon Grass
What are the aromatic profile characteristics of Muscat?
Musk
Burnt Caramel
Honey
Orange Blossom
Honeysuckle
Rosewater
Peach
Lime Blossom
White raisin
Apricot
Mango
Mousiness/earthiness
Citrus
Fresh Grapes
Gardenia
What are the aromatic profile characteristics of Semillon?
Pear
Lanolin
Nuts
Flowers
Citrus
Wax
Honey
Minerals
Melon
Pinapple
Tropical Fruit
Citrus
Honey
Caramel
Minerals
Spice
Peach
Apricot
Nectarine
Butterscotch
Vanilla
Flowers
Nuts
Which grape variety is believed to be the ancestor from which all other wine grapes descended?
Muscat
Which white grape variety is likely to be given the following cellar treatments? Barrel fermentation, malolactic fermentation, and sur lie aging with battonage?
chardonnay
What three white grapes may be incorporated into the prodoction of Sauternes?
Semillon
Muscadelle
Sauvignon Blanc
What are the profile characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon?
High Tannin
Moderately High Acid
High Pigment
High phenolics
What are the aromatic profile characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon?
Black Cherry
Vanilla
Black Currant
Herbs
Blackberry
Mint
Blueberry
Lilac
Red Currant
Toffee
Cedar
Chocolate
Cigar Box
Pencil Shavings
Tobacco
Black Pepper
Tea
Eucalyptus
Coffee
Cocoa
What are the profile characteristics of Merlot?
Moderate Tannin
High Alcohol
Short on Acid
What are the aromatic profile characteristics of Merlot?
Blueberry
Cigar Box
Blackberry
Mint
Cherry
Toffee
Black cherry
Vanilla
Plum
Cocoa
Prune
Coffee
Fresh/grapey
Spice
Black Pepper
Chocolate
What are the profile characteristics of Pinot Noir?
Low to moderate tannin
Good acidity
Broad, expansive aroma, boquet
What are the aromatic profile characteristics of Pinot Noir?
Raspberries
Strawberries
Cherries
Blackberries
Plum
Earth
Sandalwood
Barnyard
Leather
Violets
Toast
Lilac
Clove
Cinnamon
Truffles
Smoke
incense
Wet forest floor
Meaty-Gamey
What are the profile characteristics of Zinfandel?
Densely Pigmented
Moderately Tannic
Alcoholic
High Extract
Good Acid
What are the aromatic profile characteristics of Zinfandel?
Raspberry
Blackberry
Black Pepper
Nutmeg
Cinnamon
Anise
Tar
Jam
Black Raspberry
Raisin
Candied Fruit
Clove
Cedar
sandalwood
Vanilla
Spice
What are the profile characteristics of Syrah/Shiraz?
Heavily Pigmented
Highly Tannic
High Alcohol
Needs time to mature
What are the aromatic profile characteristics of Syrah/Shiraz?
Smoke
Game
Tar
Toast
Pepper
Raspberry
Chocolate
Herb
Musk
Char
Black Olives
Mineral
Mint
Leather
Blackberry
Sweat
Baked Earth
Spice
Lavendar
Anise
Jam
Rosemary
What are the profile characteristics of Sangiovese?
Low Extract
Low Pigment
High Acid
Moderate Tannin
Moderate Alcohol
What are the aromatic profile characteristics of Sangiovese?
Fresh Cherry
Toast
Sun-baked earth
Wood
Charcoal
Clove
Licorice
Chocolate
Thyme
Dried Cherry
Dried Orange Peel
Spice
Leather
Black Cherry
Sour Strawberry
What are the profile characteristics of Gamay?
Low tannin
High Acid
Low Pigment
Aromatic
What are the aromatic profile characteristics of Gamay?
Lily of the Valley
Raspberry
Cranberry
Rose
Cherry
Orange Peel
Iris
Banana
Strawberry
Violets
What are the profile characteristics of Grenache?
Low Pigment
Low Tannin
Low Acid
High Alcohol
What are the aromatic profile characteristics of Grenache?
Strawberry
Ethyl Acetate
Sour Cherry
Black Pepper
Cranberry
Alcohol
What are the profile characteristics of Barbera?
High Acid
High Pigment
Moderate Tannin
What are the aromatic profile characteristics of Barbera?
Mulberry
Cherry
Vanilla
Sour Cherry
Plum
Cinnamon
What are the profile characteristics of Cabernet Franc?
Moderate Tannin
Moderate Pigment
Moderate to High Acid
Light to medium body
What are the aromatic profile characteristics of Cabernet Franc?
Fresh mushrooms
Fall Leaves
Violet
Hummus
Potting soil
Wild Strawberry
Cocoa
Cranberry
Sweet Herb
Mulberry
Moss
Tobacco
Wet Tree Bark
Tea
What are the profile characteristics of Nebbiolo?
High Acid
High Tannin
High extract
High Alcohol
What are the aromatic profile characteristics of Nebbiolo?
Tar
Truffles
Cocoa
Twigs
Forest floor
Bitter chocolate
Roses
Iris
Violet
What are the profile characteristics of Tempranillo?
Moderate Tannin
Low Acid
High Pigment
Long lived
What are the aromatic profile characteristics of Tempranillo?
Cherries
Vanilla
Strawberries
Vellum
Leather
Lanolin
Wood
Road Dust
What red grape variety is well known for its propensity to mutate?
Pinot Noir
Brunello is a clone of what grape variety?
Sangiovese
What two grape varieties cross polinated to create Cabernet Sauvignon?
Cabernet Franc and Sauvignon Blanc
What is tempranillo called in Portugals Duoro Valley?
Tinto Roriz
What is tempranillo called in Catalonia?
Ulle de Liebre
What is tempranillo called in Valdepenas?
Cencibel
What is tempranillo called in Ribera del Duoro?
Tinto del Pais
Tinto Fino
What is tempranillo called in Alentejo Portugal?
Aragonez
What are the principal products of fermentation?
Ethanol (alcohol) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
What is C6H12O6?
Sugars (glucose and fructose)
Combines with yeast for fermentation
What alcohol level would a wine harvested at 22 degrees Brix finish at?
11%
Why is SO2 added to grape must?
To inhibit wild yeast fermentation
slow the growth of spoilage bacteria
Prevent browning of the juice
What are the typical steps taken in the production of white wine?
Crushing
SO2 Addition
Skin contact
Pressing
Juice setting (debourbage)
Must adjustments
Fermentation
Malolactic fermentation
Racking
Sulpher adjustment
Clarification
Heat Stabilization
Cold Stabilization
Aging (elevage)
Blending
What might happen in a bottle if a wine is not cold stabilized?
Tartaric crystals can form in the wine. Although harmless they look like shards of glass in the wine
What causes malolactic fermentation?
Warm temperatures, low sulfur levels, low acid, lees contact, and barrel fermentation cause the malic acid in the must to convert to lactic acid
What is fining?
Fining agents are mixed into the wine where they bind with certain particles as they settle out of the solution, thus pulling those particles with them.
i.e. gelatin and egg white particles
What is the puropose of chaptalization?
Sugar is added to the must of grapes that failed to reach optimal maturity
How does maceration affect a finished wines texture and flavor?
Color, tannin, and flavor components are extracted from the skins of the grapes.
Longer maceration = Higher extract wines
What is the typical range of temperature for red wine fermentation?
between 60-95 degrees
What is the typical range of temperature for white wine production?
50-60 degrees F
What is Carbonic Maceration?
Whole berry fermentation...Whole grape clusters are placed in an anaerobic (oxygen free) environment to change their metabolism so they break down sugars to create alcohol without the influence of yeast
What are the time/temp requirements for Carbonic Maceration?
Hot (85-95 degreesF) and long (up to three weeks)
What are the typical steps taken for red wine production?
Crushing
SO2 Addition
Must adjustments
Maceration
Fermentation
Malolactic fermentation
Extended maceration
Pressing
Clarification
Aging/Blending
Bottling
Bottle Aging
For sparkling wine production, what are the desired levels (high, medium, low) of acidity and sugar at harvest?
High acid and moderate sugar
Why are grapes used for sparkling wine production normally pressed rather than crushed?
To minimize pigment contamination and bitterness
What is the typical order of events for the Traditional Method of sparkling wine production?
Pressing
Juice Settling
Chaptalization
Fermentation
Racking
assemblage
Fining
Racking
Cold Stabilization
Liquer de Tirage
Second Fermentation (prise de mousse)
Aging
Riddling (remuage)
Disgorging (degorgement)
Dosage (liqueur d'expedition)
Bottle Aging
Transvasage
What is a gyropalette?
A mechanical alternative to riddling. Allows houses to riddle the same amount of bottles in one week it would take three months to riddle by hand
How much pressure is inside a typical bottle of sparkling wine?
between 4.9 and 6 atmospheres of pressure
What are the ascending orders of sweetness for sparkling wine?
Brut nature or sans dosage
Extra Brut
Brut
Extra Dry or Extra Sec
Sec
Demi-Sec
Doux
In ascending order what are the bottle sizes and volume of sparkling wine?
Split 1/4 bottle
Half or Demi 1/2 bottle
Standard 750mL
Magnum 2 bottles
Jerobaum 4 bottles
Rehobaum 6 bottles
Methuselah 8 bottles
Salmanazar 12 bottles
Balthazar 16 bottles
Nabuchadnezzar 20 bottles
Solomon 24 bottles
Premat 36 bottles
What is the name of the sparkling wine method in which the second fermentation is accomplished in a tank rather than a bottle?
Charmat or Cuve Close
What is the primary production step that is avoided in the Transfer Method?
Riddling
In Sparkling wine the bubbles are comprised of what gas?
CO2
What is the English translation of debourage?
Juice settling
What are the two definitions of cuvee?
The juice from the first pressing
or
Blended base wine
What are the two general categories into which Sherry can be classified after fermentation?
Fino and Oloroso
What is flor?
A film of yeast that contributes to the biological aging of Sherry
What are the typical order of events for Sherry production?
Pressing
Acidification
Racking
Fermentation
Classification
Fortification
Aging
Growth of the Flor in Finos
Aging of Olorosos
The Solera
Running the Scales
Blending
Finishing
What is the alcoholic content of a fino Sherry after fermentation?
15-15.5%
How much residual sugar is typically present in an amontillado immedietly after fortification?
Fermented totally dry, must be dry because flor cannot form if residual sugar is present
What is the least acidic and most aldehydic wine?
Sherry
What is Vino Dulce?
It is a sweetening agent for Sherry made from raisined Palomino or PX grapes that have been picked and dried in the sun
What is Dulce apogado?
An unfermented grape must to which grape spirits have been added or a sweet wine whose fermentation has been arrested by the addition of grapes spirits. used as a sweetening agent for sherry
What is Dulce de almibar?
Pure invert sugar (50/50 mix of glucose and fructose) Used as a sweetening agent for sherry
What are the three definitions of solera?
-A set of casks, arranged in tiers (scales) representing one type of sherry from many different vintages.
-An aging and fractional blending system that involves the withdrawl of a portion of wine from a butt and the replacement of that same quantity with a younger wine.
-The butts that contain the oldest wine in the system.
What are the typical alcohol and residual sugar levels of a port immedietly following fortification?
8-12% residual sugar
20% alcohol
What are the two primary categories of Port?
Ruby and Tawny
What is an LBV?
Late Bottled Vintage port.
Matured in large oak vats for 4-6 years after harvest, filtered before bottling and available for immediete consumption after bottling.
Usually bottled with a T cork
What is the difference between LBV and Vintage port?
Both are vintage dated and may come from the same vineyards but Vintage ports are typically aged for decades in the bottle and LBV are 4-6 years in oak
What is a colheita port?
A single vintage tawny port. Must remain in cask for 7 years but there is no limit to its time spent in wood. can be 10, 15, or even 50 years.
Represents less than 1% of all port
*Should be drank within a year of the bottling date
What ports are primarily bottle aged?
Vintage and single quinta (single estate)
T or F All port spends time aging in cask
True
What are three common methods of Madeira production today?
-Placing the wine in concrete vats and circulating hot water through a submerged coil.
-Placing the wine in large casks and storing in heated warehouses (estufagem)
-Age the fortified wine in cask for a number of years in uncooled warehouses
What are the four noble grapes used for top quality Madeira production?
Sercial
Verdelho
Bual
Malmsey
What is the most widely planted grape on the island of Madeira?
Tinta Negra Mole
What is an estufa?
armazens de color (hot rooms) heated by steam filled pipes used for the production of Madeira
Where is Marsala produced?
Sicily
What are the three types of Marsala?
Oro (golden)
Ambra (amber)
Rubino (ruby)
What is the range of residual sugar found in Marsala?
4-10%
What is sifone?
a late picked overipe must to which alcohol has been added.
Used to fortify the base wine of Marsala
What is Mosto Cotto?
a concentrated must that has been boiled down to concentrate its sugars and flavors.
Used to fortify the base wine of Marsala
What is a Vin Doux Naturel?
"Naturally sweet wine" in which fermentation is arrested through the addition of grape spirits
What are the three most common grapes incorporated in Vins Doux Naturel?
Muscat a Petit Grains, Muscat de Rivesaltes, and Muscat of Alexandria
How does the production of Malaga and Montilla-Moriles mirror the production methods of other fortified wine products?
They are both aged in a solera method
What is the most widely planted white grape of Argentina?
Pedro Gimenez
Argentina has made a name for itself with which Bordeaux varietal?
Malbec
What factors contributed to a strong wine culture in Argentina?
The establishment of the railroad in 1885 and the large wave of European immigrants in 1820
Where are most of the Argentine vineyards located?
Mendoza
What is the largest wine region in Argentina?
Mendoza
In what Argentine region was the first vineyard planted?
La Rioja
What is the Zonda?
A fierce, hot, dry wind that blows out of the Northwest in Argentina. During flowering it can reduce crop yield through poor berry set.
What is a parral?
A vertical trellis system in Argentina. Vines are planted in deep fertile soiland then trained on this high trellis system to escape the heat from the ground. They are drip irrigated.
What is meant by "hens and chicks" when referencing a grape cluster?
Uneven berry set, often used to reference the Mendoza clone of Chardonnay...aka peas and pumpkins
What is the Argentinean climate?
Continental
How does Argentina rank as a producer of wine in the world?
Fifth
How does Argentina rank as a wine consumer in the world?
Eighth
What are the principal wine growing regions of Argentina?
Mendoza
San Juan
La Rioja
Salta
Jujuy
Catamarca
Rio Negro
Neuquen
Tucuman
La Pampa
What is the second largest wine region in Argentina?
San Juan
What are pampas in Argentina?
Fertile grasslands
What were the first grapes brought to Argentina and by whom?
Criolla Grande and Cereza by the Spanish
Criolla is the same as Chiles Pais
What is Criolla used for in production?
Rustic wines and brandy in Argentina
Where are the majority of Argentinas vines planted?
The northwest section of the country on the lower slope of the Andes
Where does Argentina recieve as significant amount of their water for irrigation?
Snowmelt from the Andes peaks
What is the typical soil type of Argenitna?
alluvial sands atop clay, gravel, or limestone subsoils
What percent of Argentinas wine production is vinified in Mendoza?
70%
What type of wine is San Juan known for its production of?
Sherry and the base wines for vermouth.
Table grapes and raisins are produced here as well
What types of wine is La Rioja, Argentina known for?
White wines from Torrontes and Moscatel de Alejandria
What area did National Geographic dub as the "Land of the Living Wind"?
Rio Negro and Neuquen Argentina
What are the principal red grapes of Argentina?
Malbec
Bonarda
Cabernet Sauvignon
Syrah
Merlot
Tempranilla
What are the principal white grapes of Argentina?
Pedro Gimenez
Torrontes
Chardonnay
Moscatel de Alejandria
Chenin Blanc
Ugni Blanc
What is the second most widely planted white grape in Argentina?
Moscatel de Alejandria
What is Pinot de la Loire in Argentina?
Chenin Blanc
What is used as the base wine in sparkling wine production of Argentina?
Chenin Blanc and Ugni Blanc
What is the third most widely planted white grape in Argentina?
Torrontes
T or F There is more Malbec planted in Argentina that anywhere else in the world.
True
What is unique among the Australian geographoc indications about South Eastern Australia?
It is the only current appelation that covers an area larger than a single state
Under Australian law, if a single varietal appears on the label, what is the minimum content from that grape variety in the wine?
85%
What is the minimum amount of a wine that must originate in a geographic indication to cite that GI as a place of origin on an Australian label?
85%
What soil type does Australias Granite region possess?
Limestone
What region in South Australia is responsible for a quarter of the total national grape production?
Riverland
What are the GI's within the Limestone Coast of Australia?
Coonawarra
Padthaway
Mount Benson
Robe
Wrattonbully
What two GI's in South Australia are famed for their Rieslings?
Clare Valley
Eden Valley
What are two ultra cool wine regions on the Austalian Mainland?
Henty and the Macedonian Ranges
What state or territory is the original home of grapevine plantings Down Under?
New South Whales
What are the wine regions along the coast of Western Australia?
Geographe
Margaret River
Blackwood Valley
Manjimup
Pemberton
Great Southern
Riverina is best known for what two wine products?
dessert wine and "bag in box" wine
What is strategy 2025?
Australias goal to become a "4.5 billion dollar industry by being the worlds most influential and profitable supplier of branded wine
What is the nature of Australian soils?
Typically sandy, may be atop limestone or ganite
T or F
Australia has no indigenous vines
True
What is Ausbruch?
A botrysized wine made in and around Rust, a small village located along the shores of Lake Neusiedl in Neusiedersee-Hugelland Austria.
What is the most widely planted grape variety in Austria?
Gruner Veltliner
What is the signifigance of the Heurige culture in Austria?
In 1784 growers were given an "assist" by Emperor Josef II allowing farmers to sell their own products on their premises. This lends to the fact that now there is a distinct differentiation between "new wine" and the rustic inns where the new vintages are served.
What was the Austrian wine scandal of 1985?
Some winemakers were found to be adulterating their wine with diethylene glycol to give them more body.
Wine exports were devastated but it resulted in the institution of some of the toughest wine laws in the world
What is Welschriesling?
An Austrian grape synonymous to Italian Riesling with no relation to true riesling.
A fragrant perfumed white with good acidity
What is Feinburgunder a synonym for?
Chardonnay
What is Morillon a synonym for?
Chardonnay
What is Pinot Blanc called in Austria?
Weissburgunder
What is the Fruhroter Veltliner or Roter Veltliner of Austria known as in France and Germany?
France (and Switzerland)- Malvosie Rose
Germany - Fruhroter Malvasier
What is Neuburger?
A full bodied Weissburgunder x Silvaner cross
What is Rotgipfler?
A spicy white that is a cross between Traminer and Roter Veltliner.
Pronounced acidity and usually finished with a little residual sugar
What is Zierflander or Spatrot?
An Austrian grape that makes a wine with pronounced acidity and often finished with a little residual sugar.
A cross between Roter Veltliner and an as yet unidentified grape variety
What are the primary white grape varieties of Austria?
Gruner Veltliner
Welschriesling
Chardonnay
Weissburgunder
Riesling
Sauvignon Blanc
Fruhroter Veltliner
Neuburger
Rotgipfler
Zierfandler
What are the primary red varietals of Austria?
Blauer Zweigelt
Blaufrankisch
Blauer Portugieser
St. Laurent
Pinot Noir
Blauer Wildbacher
What is Blauer Zweigelt?
A cross between Blaufrankisch and St. Laurent created by Dr. Zweigelt at Klosterneuberg in Donauland, Austria
What is blaufrankisch?
A grape also known as Lemberger or Kefrankos. Out of Austria, makes a powerful wine with licorice and cinnamon accents, boysenberry fruit and chewy tannins
What is Portugieser or Blauer Portugieser?
A grape brought to Austria from Portugal in 1772. A light bodied, low acid, low alcohol, fruity red
What is St. Laurent?
An Austrian varietal of French origin. A member of the Pinot family, yet slightly more tannic.
What is Blauer Wildbacher?
An Austrian varietal that produces a grassy and herbal wine (red) with pronounced acidity. Usually vinified as a rose called Schilcher
What is Schilcher?
An Austrian rose vinified from Blauer Wildbacher