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67 Cards in this Set

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Double-sided pump; about size of fist
L and R sides separated by the cardiac septum
located in the medistenum
3 layers
4 chambers and 4 valves
enclosed in the pericardium (2 layers)
Heart
to pump blood to the lungs or to the body
function of the heart
endocardium
myocardium
epicardium
3 layers of the heart
smooth inner lining of the heart and valves
endocardium
muscular, middle layer of the heart; bulk of the heart
myocardium
outermost layer of the heart; continuous with the visceral pericardium
epicardium
double folded serous sac (membrane) surrounding the heart; encloses the heart;sling like
pericardium
inner membrane lying against the heart itself
visceral pericardium
outer membrane lying against the chest wall
parietal pericardium
space between the visceral and parietal membranes; contains pericardial fluid
pericardial space/cavity
4 chambers;
2 atria and 2 ventricles
Chambers
2 upper, receiving chambers that receive blood from the body or lungs
Artria
receives oxygen poor blood from the body via vena cavae
R atrium
receives oxygen rich blood from the lungs
L atrium
2 lower, pumping chambers that pump blood to the lungs and body
ventricles
pumps oxygen poor blood to the lungs
R ventricle
pumps oxygen rich blood to the body
L ventricle
4 valves, structures that prevent backflow
valves
(2) valves between the atria and ventricles
atrioventricular (AV) valves
AV valve between the R atrium and R ventricles
tricuspid valve
AV valve between the L atrium and the L ventricle
Bicuspid (mitral) valve
swishing sound heard when blood back flows (regurgitates) into the atria
Murmur
valves the guard the exit from the ventricles
2 semilunar (SL) valves
prevents back flow into the R ventricle from the pulmonary arteries
pulmonary valve
prevents back flow into the L ventricle from the aorta
aortic valve
the sound created when the AV valves close
Lubb
the sound created when the SL valves close
Dupp
blood flow from the R ventricle to the lungs and then to L atrium
Pulmonary circulation
blood flow from the L ventricle to the body and then to the R atrium
systemic circulation
blood flow from the heart thru the lungs and back to the heart
cardiopulmonary circulation
blood supply to the myocardium
coronary circulation
blood enters the coronary arteries as it leaves the heart
Aorta
provide nourishment to the myocardium
L and R coronary arteries
feeds the left heart
LAD (left anterior descending artery)
receives oxygen poor blood from the outer heart
coronary veins
drain oxygen poor blood to the R atrium
coronary sinuses
the route electrical impulses travel thru heart to innervate the myocardium
cardiac conduction (electrical pathway)
pacemaker, initiates the heartbeat;sends impulse thru the atria, depolarizing them and resulting in contraction
SA (sinoatrial) node
receives the impulse, slows it down till the atria empties
AV (atrioventricular) node
receives the impulse from the AV node, speeds it up and sends it to the bundle branches
Bundle of HIS
carry the impulses quickly down the septum and around the ventricles
Bundle Branches
carry the impulse into the ventricles resulting in contraction
Purkinje fibers
ability of the heart to initiate its' own beat; works automatically
Automaticity
the initiating heartbeat occurring outside the SA node
Ectopic focus
thru the heart to the lungs and back thru the heart (starts at vena cava and ends at aorta
cardiopulmonary circulation
from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart; R ventricle to lungs and then L atrium
pulmonary circulation
from the aorta thru the body and back to the heart; L ventricle to the body then R atrium
systemic circulation
blood routed from SIPS to the liver for processing
Hepatic portal circulation
Stomach, intestines, pancreas, spleen
SIPS
temporary routing of blood from the lungs
fetal circulation
blood from the L ventricle thru the body and then to the R atrium
systemic circulation
largest artery in the body; carries blood away from the heart
aorta
large, thick-walled, elactic vessels, high pressure, carry blood away from the the heart
arteries
small arteries; slow blood flow; helps control BP
arterioles
microscopic exchange vessels; connect arterioles and venules
capillaries
small veins
venules
thin-walled vessels with valves; low pressures; carry blood to the heart; subject to clotting
veins
largest vein in the body; carry blood to the R atrium
vena cavae
carries oxygen poor blood from above the heart
superior vena cava
carries oxygen poor blood from below the heart
inferior vena cava
systole and diastole of the heart; lasts 0.8 seconds
cardiac cycle
contraction of the ventricles of the heart
systole
relaxation of the ventricles of the heart
diastole
amount of blood pumped by each ventricle in 1 minute
cardiac output
heart rate x stroke volume=
cardiac output
number of times the heart beats per minute
heart rate
amount of blood pumped per beat
stroke volume