• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/36

Click to flip

36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the sources of brain damage?
-brain tumors
-cerebrovascular disorders
-infections of the CNS
-Neuropsychological Diseases
-Contusions
-Genetic Syndromes
glial tumors
glial tumors are a type of brain tumors that arise from glial cells in the brain; glial tumors are 40% of brain tumors
meningiomas
meningiomas are tumors between the meninges that are often encapsulated and benign (20% of brain tumors are meningiomas)
metasteses
metastestes are cancer cells that come from other organs, such as thee lungs, skin, etc. (20% of brain tumors are metastestes)
cerebral hemorrhage
A CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE is a cerebro-vascular disorder (stroke) that is characterized by bleeding in the brain and may be caused by a ruptured aneurysm.(15% of cerebro-vascular disorders are cerebral hemorrhages)
cerebral ischemia
CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA
-cerebro-vascular disorder (stroke)
-caused by disruption of blood supply
-may be caused by a clogged blood vessel
-85% of cerebro-vascular disorders are cerebral ischemias (compared to the 15% that are cerebral hemorrhages)
cerebro-vascular disorders
cerebro-vascular disorders- strokes
-cerebral hemorrhage-bleeding in the brain that may be caused by a ruptured aneurysm
-cerebral ischemia- disruption of the blood supply that may be caused by a clogged blood vessel (85%)
types of cell death
-apoptosis- programmed cell death
-necrosis- sudden, unexpected cell death
apoptosis
programmed cell death
necrosis
sudden, unexpected cell death
Infections of the CNS
-syphilis- bacterial infection
-meningitis- bacterial infection/viral infection
-rabies- viral infection
-herpes- viral infection
syphilis
syphilis is a bacterial infection of the cns
meningitis
meningitis is a bacterial/viral infection of the CNS
rabies
rabies is a viral infection of the CNS
herpes
herpes is a viral infection of the CNS
Neuropsychological Diseases- name them
NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL DISEASES
-Parkinson's disease
-Huntingtin's disease
-Alzheimer's Disease
-Epilepsy
-Multiple Sclerosis
What system is Parkinson's disease?
Parkinson's disease is a disease of the extra-pyramidal system
What system is Huntingtin's Disease?
Huntington's Disease is a disease of the extra pyramidal system
Parkinson's disease vs. Huntingon's disease: how often do they occur in the population?
Parkinson's disease occurs in about 0.5% of the population but Huntington's Disease is much less common than Parkinson's Disease
Symptoms of Parkinson's disease
symptoms of parkinson's disease include difficulties initiating voluntary movements, tremor during inactivity, muscle rigidity. Usually no dementia.
Symptoms of Huntinton's Disease
Huntington's disease symptoms include:
-uncontrolled rapid movements of the limbs
-severe dementia
Are their genetic factors in Parkinson's vs Huntington's Diseases?
Parkinson's disease has no one genetic factor linked to the disease; Huntington's has a clear genetic cause
Treatment for Parkinson's vs. Huntington's Diseases?
Parkinson's disease is treated with agonists of the dopamine system; Huntington's disease has no effective treatment
What causes Alzhemier's disease?
Alzheimer's disease is caused by amyloid plaques (outside neurons) and neurofibrillary tangles (inside neurons)
what parts of the brain are most affected in alzheimer's disease?
-most affected: amygdala, enterohinal cortex, hippocampus
-less affected: prefrontal cortex, posterior parietal cortex, inferior temporal cortex
*Note that THE MEDIAL TEMPORAL LOBE IS AFFECTED! The hippocampus and other medial temporal lobe structures are involved in the formation of new memories.
Neuronal and transneuronal degeneration following axotomy
NEURAL DEGENERATION
1. axotomy- the axon of the neuron is cut
2. anterograde degeneration- then, the distal portion of the damaged neuron degenerates
3. retrograde degeneration-then, the proximal portion of the damaged neuron may degenerate
4. transneuronal degeneration- then, neurons that synapsed on the damaged neuron may degenerate and so too may neurons on which the damaged neuron synapsed
axotomy
the axon of a neuron is cut in an axotomy --- this causes neural degeneration (axotomy is followed by anterograde degeneration, retrograde degeneration, & then transneuronal degeneration)
anterograde degeneration
-anterograde degeneration (2) happens after the axotomy (1)
-in anterograde degeneration, the distal portion of the damaged neuron degenerates
-anterograde degeneration is the second step in neural degeneration (1. axotomy 2. anterograde degeneration 3. retrograde degeneration 4. transneuronal degeneration)
retrograde degeneration
Retrograde degeneration (3 of 4 steps of neural degeneration)
-the proximal portion of the damaged neuron may degenerate and this is called retrograde degeneration
transneuronal degeneration
-transneuronal degeneration is the final (4th) step in neural degeneration (1. axotomy 2. anterograde degeneration 3. retrograde degeneration 4. transneuronal degeneration)
-in transneuronal degeneration, the neurons that synapsed on the damaged neuron may degenerate and so too may neurons on which the damaged neuron synapsed
Neural Regeneration: by which cells does this happen?
Oligodendrocytes (in the CNS): block regeneration
Schwann cells (in the PNS): promote regeneration
what happens when a nerve is damaged without severing the schwann cell sheaths?
When a nerve is damaged without severing the Schwann Cell scheathes (e.g. crushing) individual axons regenerate to their correct targets
what happens when a nerve is damaged and the severed ends of the Schwann cell sheaths are slightly seperated?
When a nerve is damaged and the severed ends of the schwann cell sheaths are slightly seperated, individual axons often regenerate up incorrect sheaths
what happens when a nerve is damaged and the Schwann cell sheaths are widely seperated?
When a nerve is damaged and the Schwann cell sheaths are widely seperated, there is typically no regeneration
cells that block regeneration in the CNS
Oligodendrocytes block regeneration in the CNS
cells that promote regeneration in the PNS
Schwann cells promote regeneration in the PNS