Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/25

Click to flip

25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Objective

Distinguish between classical and operant conditioning.
Classical conditioning occurs when pairing two stimuli changes the response to one of them. Ordinarily, the experimenter starts by presenting a conditioned stimulus (CS), which initially elicits no response of note, and then presents an unconditioned stimulus (UCS), which automatically elicits the unconditioned response (UCR). After some pairings of the CS and UCS, the individual begins making a new, learned response to the CS, called a conditioned response (CR). Pavlov presented a dog with a sound (CS) followed by meat (UCS), which stimulated the dog to salivate (UCR). After many such pairings, the sound alone (CS) stimulated the dog to salivate (CR).

In operant conditioning, an individual’s response is followed by a reinforcer or punishment. A reinforcer is any event that increases the future probability of the response; a punishment is an event that suppresses the frequency of the response. For example, when a rat enters one arm of a maze and finds a reinforcer such as a piece of cereal, its probability of entering that arm again increases. If it receives a shock instead, the probability decreases.

The primary difference between the two kinds of conditioning is that in operant conditioning, the individual’s response determines the outcome (reinforcer or punishment), whereas in classical conditioning the CS and UCS will be presented at certain times independent of the individual’s behavior.
Objective

List Lashley's two principles about the nervous system and two faulty assumptions about the engram.
Karl Lashley set out to find the engram—the physical representation learning. Lashley reasoned that if learning depends on new or strengthened connections between two brain areas, a knife cut somewhere in the brain should interrupt that connection and abolish the learned response. He proposed two principles about the role of the nervous system in learning:

1. Equipotentiality: All parts of the cortex contribute equally to complex behaviors such as learning; any part of the cortex can substitute for any other.
2. Mass Action: The cortex works as a whole, and the more of the cortex is involved in a process, the better.

Subsequent researchers in the field of cognitive neuroscience have identified two faulty assumptions in Lashley’s work:

1. That the cerebral cortex is the best or only place to search for an engram.
2. That all kinds of memory are physiologically the same.
Objective

Describe the role of LIP in learning.
In studies of classical conditioning, the cells of the lateral interpositus nucleus (LIP)—an area in the cerebellum—show an increased response to the conditioned stimulus. This brain structure appears to be necessary for both learning and retention.
Objective

Distinguish between short-term and long-term memory.
There are three important difference between short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM):

1. Capacity: STM can hold 7 ± 2 bits of information, whereas the capacity of LTM is vast and perhaps even limitless.

2. Duration: STM fades after 20-30 seconds, whereas LTM can last a lifetime.

3. Forgetting: With STM, once a piece of information is forgotten, it is lost permanently; with LTM, there can be recovery of forgotten memories.
Objective

List the three components of working memory.
Baddeley and Hitch proposed the concept of working memory to account for the storage of information that one is currently using. They identified three components of working memory:

1. Phonological Loop: Stores auditory information, including words.

2. Visuospatial Sketchpad: Stores visual information.

3. Central Executive: Directs attention toward one stimulus or another and determines which items will be stored in working memory.
Objective

Indicate which brain areas are linked to working memory.
Cells in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex maintain high levels of activity during a delayed response task, which requires an individual to respond to a stimulus that was heard or seen a short while earlier. Based on such findings, this part of the prefrontal cortex has been linked to working memory.
classical conditioning
A form of learning that occurs when pairing two stimuli changes the response to one of them
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
Stimulus that produces an unconditioned response (naturally occurring response); for example, a puff of air naturally causes an animal to blink
unconditioned response (UCR)
Response that occurs naturally, without any training; for example, blinking in response to a puff of air
conditioned stimulus (CS)
Stimulus that produces a conditioned response (after classical conditioning has occurred); for example, a tone can induce blinking after being paired with a puff of air
conditioned response (CR)
Response to a conditioned stimulus; for example, blinking in response to a tone
operant conditioning
A form of learning in which an individual’s response is followed by a reinforcer or punishment
reinforcer
Event that increases the future probability of the response
punishment
An event that suppresses the frequency of the response
engram
The physical representation of what has been learned
equipotentiality
All parts of the cortex contribute equally to complex behaviors such as learning; any part of the cortex can substitute for any other
mass action
The idea that the cortex works as a whole, and that the more of the cortex is involved, the better
lateral interpositus nucleus (LIP)
Nucleus of the cerebellum involved in learning
short-term memory
Holds only a small amount of information and retains it only briefly unless it is constantly rehearsed
long-term memory
Retains vast amounts of material indefinitely, but recalling this information sometimes requires great effort
working memory
Stores information that one is currently using; it is the way we store information while we are working with it or attending to it
phonological loop
Component of working memory; which stores auditory information, including words
visuospatial sketchpad
Component of working memory; stores visual information
central executive
Component of working memory; which directs attention toward one stimulus or another and determines which items will be stored in working memory
delayed response task
Which requires responding to a stimulus that one heard or saw a short while earlier