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21 Cards in this Set

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Thalamic Nuclei
--incoming from Spinothalamic (pain & temp) tract and Medial Lemniscus (position, proprioception),
---relays to Somatosensory Cortex (Brodman's areas 1-3)

VPM Ventral Posteromedial Nucleus
---incoming from Trigeminal & Gustatory pathways
---relays to same

Lateral Geniculate
--Relay for Vision

Medial Geniculate: relay for audition
--input from superior olivary nucleus & inferior colliculus

NB: smell not relayed through thalamus
#neurology #cns #anatomy
VPL Nucleus
Thalamic Nucleus

--incoming from Spinothalamic (pain & temp) tract and Medial Lemniscus (position, proprioception),
---relays to Somatosensory Cortex (Brodman's areas 1-3)

NB: does not relay face/pharynx that is VPM
#neurology #cns #anatomy
VPM Nucleus
Ventral Posteromedial Nucleus iof the Thalamus

---incoming from Trigeminal & Gustatory pathways
---relays to Somatosensory Cortex (Brodman's areas 1-3)
#neurology #cns #anatomy
Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
Thalamic Nucleus Responsible for Vision
#neurology #cns #anatomy
Medial Geniculate Nucleus
Thalamic Nucleus Responsible for Audition

input from superior olivary nucleus & inferior output to temporal lobe
#neurology #cns #anatomy
continuous murmur heard best at left infraclavicular regioj
#cardiovascular #pathology
anatomic landmarks of ureters to bladder
start retroperitoneally on top of psoas

pass under gonadal vasculature

cross over the common or external illiac arteries (depending on laterality)

stay laterl to internal ilac vessels and medial to gonadal vessels before entering uterosacral ligament and gaining access to bladder
#anatomy #genitourinary
Which heart chamber is closest to the esophagus?
left atrium makes up the majority of heart's posterior surface

RA makes up the right border of X-ray
LV makes up the left border and paex
RV is the front of the heart and inferior border on X ray
#anatomy #cardiovascular
Pulmonary perfusion
Left and Right Bronchial Arteries arise from Descending Aorta.

These perfuse the areas which would not be perfused by simple flow of pulmonary arteries.

Majority drains into the Right atrium → RA blood is less oxygenated than blood from pulmonary veins.
#physiology #anatomy #pulmonology
What part of the testicles are sensitive to heat?
The sertoli cells

which are responsible for producing inhibin

leydig cells keep chugging
thus no lack of sexual dvlpt in cryptorchidism but ↑ risk of testicular cancer
#anatomy #physiology #endocrine #reproductive
Where do the testicular and adrenal veins drain?
Right Adrenal drains via right suprarenal vein directly into IVC
Right Testical Drains directly into IVC

Both left Adrenal and Left Testical Drain into Left Renal Vein
#anatomy #cardiovascular
Nerve Damaged during Thyroidectomy
Superior Thyroid Artery & Vein run adjacent to External Branch of Superior Laryngeal nerve, responsible for crichothyroid muscle
#anatomy #innervation
Laryngeal innervation
--recurrent laryngeal nerve
------all laryngeal muscles except cricothyroid
------sensory innervation below vocal cords

--Superior Laryngeal NErve
------External Branch: Circothyroid Muscle
------Internal branch: Sensory Innervation above vocal cords

NB: Extenral Branch of Superior Laryngeal Nerve runs adjacent to Superior Thyroid Artery/Vein → likely to be damaged in thyroidectomy
#anatomy #innervation
route of median nerve

with brachial artery between biceps brachii and brachialis muscle

medial aspect of antecubital fossa

crosses between humeral and ulnar heads of pronator teres muscle

between flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor digitorum profundus muscles

enters hand within flexor retinaculum

denervation → thenar atrophy, ape hand deformity lost sensation on palmar surface of first 3.5 digits
#anatomy #neurology
route of the ulnar nerve
between olecranon and medial epicondyle "funnybone" injury

between flexor carpi and flexor digitorum profundus

injury paralyses intrinsic muscles of hand → claw hand
#anatomy #neurology
Which strx are associated with which parts of the duodenum (specifically at risk for cancer invasion)
1st part: horizontal over L1, only part not retroperitoneal

2nd part: L1-L3 vertical; ampulla of vater

3rd: horizontal along L3 abromainal aorta and IVC close association with uncinate process and SMA/V high risk for invasion

4th superiorly L3 → L2

Ligament of Treitz defines Duodenum from jejunum
Where is the urethra damaged in a pelvic fx
between prostatic urethra and pelvic diaphragm becasue it is firmly attached to both
where is the urethra damaged 2° to blunt trauma to perineum w/o pelvic fx
blubous urehtra immediately after pelvic diaphragm
From whence is saphenous vein harvested for a CABG
surgeons access the vein in the femoral triangle just below the pubic tubercle

why? because fuck you that's why. quit asking questions.
#anatomy #clincial
Artery Damaged with non-displaced crushing fx of femoral neck (eg 2° to osteoporosis)
Medial Circumflex Artery supplies majority of blood to the region and is vulnerable as it is closely associated with posterior neck
Tibia anterior midline → Femur Posterior Lateral

Think Straight up and Down on the posterior aspect of both femur and tibia