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170 Cards in this Set

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Gram + Cocci
Catalase +
α hemolytic
Optiochin Resistant
Strep viridans

Dental carries
Subacute bacterial endocarditis 2° to dental work
Gram + Cocci
Catalase +
α hemolytic
Optiochin Sensitive
Strep pneumo:

1. pneumonia
2. otitis media
3. sinusitis
4. sepsis

#1 cause of Bacterial Meningitis
Gram + Cocci
Catalase +
β hemolytic
Bacitracin Resistant
Strep agalactiae (aka group B)

1. Neonatal Sepsis
2. Neonatal meningitis
3. Neonatal pneumonia
Gram + Cocci
Catalase +
β hemolytic
Bacitracin Sensitive
Strep pyogenes
Group A

1. Pharyngitis
2. Ceullulitis
3. Erysipelas
4. Rheumatic Fever
5. Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis
Gram + Cocci
Catalase +
γ hemolytic
Growth in Bile & 6.5% NaCl
Enterococci, incl E faciaeale
Group D

Endocarditis after GU procedures
Gram + Cocci
Catalase +
γ hemolytic
Growth in Bile but not in 6.5% NaCl
Non-enterocci

Strep bovis

Endocarditis assoc c Colonic malignancy
Gram + Catalase -- Cocci assoc c Dental Caries

Agent, Biochemical Profile, Other Dz's
Strep viridans: α hemolytic, optochin resistant

Dental carries & Subacute bacterial endocarditis 2° to dental work
Gram + Catalase -- Cocci assoc c Endocarditis 2° to Dental Problems

Agent, Biochemical Profile, Other Dz's
Strep viridans: α hemolytic, optochin resistant

Dental carries
Subacute bacterial endocarditis 2° to dental work
Gram + Catalase -- Cocci assoc c Pneumonia

Agent, Biochemical Profile, Other Dz's
Strep pneumonia: α hemolytic, optochin sensitive

1. pneumonia
2. otitis media
3. sinusitis
4. sepsis

#1 cause of Bacterial Meningitis
Gram + Catalase -- Cocci assoc c otitis media

Agent, Biochemical Profile, Other Dz's
Strep pneumonia: α hemolytic, optochin sensitive

1. pneumonia
2. otitis media
3. sinusitis
4. sepsis

#1 cause of Bacterial Meningitis
Gram + Catalase -- Cocci assoc c sinusitis

Agent, Biochemical Profile, Other Dz's
Strep pneumonia: α hemolytic, optochin sensitive

1. pneumonia
2. otitis media
3. sinusitis
4. sepsis

#1 cause of Bacterial Meningitis
Gram + Catalase -- Cocci assoc c sepsis

Agent, Biochemical Profile, Other Dz's
Strep pneumonia: α hemolytic, optochin sensitive

1. pneumonia
2. otitis media
3. sinusitis
4. sepsis

#1 cause of Bacterial Meningitis
Gram + Catalase -- Cocci assoc c neonatal sepsis

Agent, Biochemical Profile, Other Dz's
Strep agalactiae
aka Group B

β hemolytic, bacitracin resistant

1. neonatal sepsis
2. neonatal meningitis
3. neonatal pneumonia
Parvovirus B19 loves which cells
erythroid precurosors

[esp pronormoblasts and normoblasts]
#microbiology
Gram + Catalase -- Cocci assoc c neonatal meningitis

Agent, Biochemical Profile, Other Dz's
Strep agalactiae
aka Group B

β hemolytic, bacitracin resistant

1. neonatal sepsis
2. neonatal meningitis
3. neonatal pneumonia
Gram + Catalase -- Cocci assoc c neonatal pneumonia

Agent, Biochemical Profile, Other Dz's
Strep agalactiae
aka Group B

β hemolytic, bacitracin resistant

1. neonatal sepsis
2. neonatal meningitis
3. neonatal pneumonia
Gram + Catalase -- Cocci assoc c Pharyngitis

Agent, Biochemical Profile, Other Dz's
Strep Pyogenes
Group A

β hemolytic, bacitracin sensitive

1. pharyngitis,
2. cellulitis
3. erysipelas
4. rheumatic fever
5. PS Glomerulonephritis
Gram + Catalase -- Cocci assoc c Cellulitis

Agent, Biochemical Profile, Other Dz's
Strep Pyogenes
Group A

β hemolytic, bacitracin sensitive

1. pharyngitis,
2. cellulitis
3. erysipelas
4. rheumatic fever
5. PS Glomerulonephritis
Gram + Catalase -- Cocci assoc c Erysipelas

Agent, Biochemical Profile, Other Dz's
Strep Pyogenes
Group A

β hemolytic, bacitracin sensitive

1. pharyngitis,
2. cellulitis
3. erysipelas
4. rheumatic fever
5. PS Glomerulonephritis
Gram + Catalase -- Cocci assoc c Rheumatic Fever

Agent, Biochemical Profile, Other Dz's
Strep Pyogenes
Group A

β hemolytic, bacitracin sensitive

1. pharyngitis,
2. cellulitis
3. erysipelas
4. rheumatic fever
5. PS Glomerulonephritis
Gram + Catalase -- Cocci assoc c Glomerulonephritis

Agent, Biochemical Profile, Other Dz's
Strep Pyogenes
Group A

β hemolytic, bacitracin sensitive

1. pharyngitis,
2. cellulitis
3. erysipelas
4. rheumatic fever
5. PS Glomerulonephritis
Gram + Catalase -- Cocci assoc c endocarditis following GU procedures

Agent, Biochemical Profile, Other Dz's
Enterococci (E faecilialis)
Group D

γ hemolytic
growth in bile & 6.5 NaCl

no other dz states
Gram + Catalase -- Cocci assoc c endocarditis 2° colonic malignancy

Agent, Biochemical Profile, Other Dz's
Strep Bovis

γ hemolytic
growth in bile but NOT 6.5 NaCl

no other dz states
Cold Agglutinins
antibodies against epitopes which happen to mimic human erythrocytes

associated with myocplasma pneumoniae, EBV and hematologic malignancies
Diarrhea, Weight Loss, Arthralgia
Whipple's Dz

"Foamy" PAS+ M∅

Mn: CAN of Whipped Cream

Cardiac Sx
Arthralgias
Neurologic Sx
#gastrointestinal #microbiology #pathology
Diathesis Panel
Laboratory Abnormality of HUS
↑ Bleeding Time from Platelet consuming thrombi

oddly no ↑ PT, or PTT

Shiga toxin producing Shigella or E Coli O157H7
#microbiology #pathology #hematology
Ehrlichia
zoonotic infx from amblyoma lone star

obligate intracellular inhibits phagolysosomal fusion

a rickettsia
#microbiology
Obligate intracytoplasmic bacterieria
chlamydia and rickettsia

NB: only these survive intracytoplasmically outside of phagosomes
#microbiology
Bile Soluble Streptococci
ie cannot grow in presence of bile

all non enterococcal strep
#microbiology
HIV gp41
gp41 is fusion protein allows entry into cell after adherence

[gp120 allows adherence to CD4]

both cleaved from gp160 from env gene
#HIV #microbiology
HIV gp120
gp120 allows adherence to CD4

[gp41 is fusion protein allows entry into cell after adherence]

both cleaved from gp160 from env gene
#HIV #microbiology
HBV vs HCV
& Hepatocellular CA
HBV: integrates into genomes
HBx protein encodes for growth promoting and p53 inactivating proteins

HCV induces hepatocellular cancer simply through chronic inflammation, does not encorporate into genome, no specific pro-CA molecules
#pathology #microbiology #neoplasia
the pathology of 3* syphilis
obliteration of vasa vasorum
#microbiology
Cause of Death:
Acute Rheumatic Fever
Myocarditis

NB: mitral stenosis req's years to dvlp
#microbiology #pathology
D-glutamate capsule
The primary virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis, required for pathogenicity, uniquely does not contain polysaccharide

"wool-workers dz"

grows "medusa head" colonies on media

spores grow once ingested by alvoelar M∅ → mediastinal lymkph nodes → hemorrhagic mediastinitis → septic shock and death

anthrax toxin
#microbiology #pulmonology
Wool Worker with Widened Mediastinum
Bacillus anthracis --"wool workers dz"

spores grow once ingested by alvoelar M∅ → mediastinal lymkph nodes → hemorrhagic mediastinitis → septic shock and death

D-glutamate capsule is the The primary virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis, required for pathogenicity, uniquely does not contain polysaccharide

grows "medusa head" colonies on media

anthrax toxin
#microbiology #pulmonology
"medusa head" colonies on agar
Bacillus anthracis --"wool workers dz"

spores grow once ingested by alvoelar M∅ → mediastinal lymkph nodes → hemorrhagic mediastinitis → septic shock and death

D-glutamate capsule is the The primary virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis, required for pathogenicity, uniquely does not contain polysaccharide

anthrax toxin
#microbiology #pulmonology
Fever, GI distress, Hepatosplenomegaly, Periumbilical Rose Spots
Salmonella typhi
#microbiology #gastrointestinal #hepatobiliary #pathology
Microbe: produce diarrhea with small innoculum
Entamoeba Histolytica (1)
Giardia (1)
Shigella (10)
Campylobacter jejuni (500)
#microbiology #gastrointestinal
Rapid Lactose Fermenters
Kleb: Citrate + Urease +
Enterobacter: Citrate + Urease Neg
E Coli: Citrate, Urease Double Neg
#microbiology #diagnostics
Biochemical Profile of Kleb
Rapid Lactose Fermenter
Citrate +
Urease +
#microbiology #diagnostics
Biochemical Profile of Enterobacter
Rapid Lactose Fermenter
Citrate +
Urease Neg
#microbiology #diagnostics
Biochemical Profile of E coli
Rapid Lactose Fermenter
Citrate Neg
Urease Neg
#microbiology #diagnostics
Biochemical Profile of Shigella
Oxidase Negative
Lactose Nonfermenter
Which does not produce H2S on TSI Agar
#microbiology #diagnostics
Biochemical Profile of Salmonella
Oxidase Negative Lactose Nonfermenter
Which Produces H2S on TSI Agar

Identical Profile to Proteus
#microbiology #diagnostics
Biochemical Profile of Proteus
Oxidase Negative Lactose Nonfermenter
Which Produces H2S on TSI Agar

Identical Profile to Salmonella
#microbiology #diagnostics
Biochemical Profile of Pseudomonas
Oxidase Positive Lactose Nonfermenter
#microbiology #diagnostics
Gram Negative Rod
Which Ferments Lactose Slowly
Both Citrobacter and Serratia
#microbiology #diagnostics
Urease + Citrate +
Rapid Lactose Fermenting
Gram Negative Rod
Kleb
#microbiology #diagnostics
Urease Neg Citrate +
Rapid Lactose Fermenting
Gram Negative Rod
Enterobacter
#microbiology #diagnostics
Urease Neg Citrate Neg
Rapid Lactose Fermenting
Gram Negative Rod
E coli
#microbiology #diagnostics
Oxidase Negative Lactose Non-Fermenting
Gram Negative Rod
Which Does Not Produce H2S on TSI Agar
Shigella
#microbiology #diagnostics
Oxidase Negative Lactose Non-Fermenting
Gram Negative Rod
Which Produces H2S on TSI Agar
Either Salmonella or Proteus
#microbiology #diagnostics
Oxidase Positive
Lactose Non-Fermenting
Gram Negative Rod
Pseudomonas
#microbiology #diagnostics
Lactose Non Fermenting
Oxidase Negative
Gram Negative Rod
TSI Agar:

∅ H2S Prodxn: Shigella

H2S Prodxn: Salmonella or Proteus
#microbiology #diagnostics
Maltose Fermenting
Gram Negative Cocci
N meningitidis

NB: Maltose Non-Fermenting = N gonorrhoeae
#microbiology #diagnostics
Maltose Non-Fermenting
Gram Negative Cocci
N gonorrhoeae

NB: Maltose Fermenting = N meningitidis
#microbiology #diagnostics
Acyclovir v Herpesviruses
Guanosine Analogue

must be converted to acyclovir monophosphate by virally encoded Thymidine Kinase before being incorporated (rate limiting step)

HSV-1 & VZV produce thymidine kinase

EBV and CMV do not
[some fnxality at extremely high concentrations]
#pharmacology #microbiology #antimicrobials
Pure Red Cell Aplasia

Pathogenesis
Parvovirus B19

or

Thymoma
#pathology #hematology #microbiology #noplasia
Most Likely Outcomes:

Acute Hep B and C
Hep B: Complete Resolution

Hep C: Chronic Stable Hepatitis
#microbiology #hepatobiliary #pathology
Mycoplasma v Mycobacterium

Species, DOC's
Mycobacterium: tuberculosis, leprosy, M avium
Mycolic acid cell wall: acid fast
INH (B6 analogue) inhibits mycolic acid synth


Mycoplasma: M pneumo & ureaplasma urealyticam
single cell membrane composed of cholesterol containing pospholipid bilayer
DOC: erythromycin or tetracycline
#microbiology #antimicrobials #pharmacology
To where is blastomyces native
Mississippi River & Great Lakes regions
#microbiology
Pt cannot clear Giardia infx
IgA deficiency
#microbiology #immunology #gastrointestinal
Hydrocephalus, Intracranial Calcifications, Chorioretinitis
Classic Traid of Congenital Toxoplasmosis

1st exposed when pregnant
#pathology #neonatology #microbiology
Congential Toxoplasmosis
Classic Triad:

Hydrocephalus
Intracranial Calcifications
Chorioretinitis

1st exposed when pregnant
#pathology #neonatology #microbiology
Vaccine from recombinant outer surface protein
Borrelia burgdorferi
#microbiology #vaccines
DOC: Mac
clarithormycin or azithromycin + others
#antimicrobials #pharmacology #microbiology
DOC: kaospi's sarcoma
IFN α (roferon)
#antimicrobials #pharmacology #microbiology
DOC: Pneumocystis pneumonia
pentamidine

also for tyrpanosoma brucei
#antimicrobials #pharmacology #microbiology
pentamidine
DOC: Pneumocystis pneumonia & Tyrpanosoma brucei

[unknown mech]
#antimicrobials #pharmacology #microbiology
Mutations in the HIV genome which enhance its virulence/survival
pol genes: resistance to HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors & other antiretroviral drugs (reverse transcriptase inhibitor)

env: escape host neurtalizing antibodies (codes glycoproteins)
#microbiology #resistance
DOC: Listeria
Ampicillin

(& Aminoglycosides)
#microbiology #antimicrobials #pharmacology
Emperical Treatment for Meningitis
Ceftriaxone + Ampicillin

Ceftriaxone:
-Neisseria
-Strep pneumo
-Strep pyo
-H influenzae

Ampicillin
-Listeria Monocytogenes
#microbiology #antimicrobials #pharmacology
Drug using population:
what organisms cause endocarditis
1. Staph aureus
2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa

NB: Tricuspid endocarditis,
septic emboli to lungs → hemorrhagic necrosis
#microbiology #pulmonology
Attachment Molecule for CMV
CMV: Cellular Integrins
EBV: DR2 (CD21)
HIV: CD4, CXCR4 & CXCR5
Rabies: Nicotinic ACh receptor
Rhinovirus: ICAM1 (CD54)
#microbiology
Attachment Molecule for EBV
CMV: Cellular Integrins
EBV: DR2 (CD21)
HIV: CD4, CXCR4 & CXCR5
Rabies: Nicotinic ACh receptor
Rhinovirus: ICAM1 (CD54)
#microbiology
Attachment Molecule for HIV
CMV: Cellular Integrins
EBV: DR2 (CD21)
HIV: CD4, CXCR4 & CXCR5
Rabies: Nicotinic ACh receptor
Rhinovirus: ICAM1 (CD54)
#microbiology
Attachment Molecule for Rabies
CMV: Cellular Integrins
EBV: DR2 (CD21)
HIV: CD4, CXCR4 & CXCR5
Rabies: Nicotinic ACh receptor
Rhinovirus: ICAM1 (CD54)
#microbiology
Attachment Molecule for Rhinovirus
CMV: Cellular Integrins
EBV: DR2 (CD21)
HIV: CD4, CXCR4 & CXCR5
Rabies: Nicotinic ACh receptor
Rhinovirus: ICAM1 (CD54)
#microbiology
Virus Which attaches to Cellular Integrins
CMV: Cellular Integrins
EBV: DR2 (CD21)
HIV: CD4, CXCR4 & CXCR5
Rabies: Nicotinic ACh receptor
Rhinovirus: ICAM1 (CD54)
#microbiology
Virus Which attaches to CD21
CMV: Cellular Integrins
EBV: DR2 (CD21)
HIV: CD4, CXCR4 & CXCR5
Rabies: Nicotinic ACh receptor
Rhinovirus: ICAM1 (CD54)
#microbiology
Virus Which attaches to DR2
CMV: Cellular Integrins
EBV: DR2 (CD21)
HIV: CD4, CXCR4 & CXCR5
Rabies: Nicotinic ACh receptor
Rhinovirus: ICAM1 (CD54)
#microbiology
Virus Which attaches to ICAM1
CMV: Cellular Integrins
EBV: DR2 (CD21)
HIV: CD4, CXCR4 & CXCR5
Rabies: Nicotinic ACh receptor
Rhinovirus: ICAM1 (CD54)
#microbiology
Virus Which attaches to CD54
CMV: Cellular Integrins
EBV: DR2 (CD21)
HIV: CD4, CXCR4 & CXCR5
Rabies: Nicotinic ACh receptor
Rhinovirus: ICAM1 (CD54)
#microbiology
Intestinal Invasion: Agents
Salmonella
Shigella
EIEC
Campylobacter jejunu

Entamoeba histolitica
#microbiology #gastrointestinal
"Stacked Brick" Intestinal Bacterial Adhesions
Enteroaggregative E coli EAEC
#microbiology #gastrointestinal
Mononucleus like Sro with negative monospot test
CMV HHV-6 Toxoplasmosis
#microbiology
Differentiating Septate Hyphae
V-branching: Aspergillus
Right Angle: Mucor/Rhizapus
#microbiology
Reactive Arthritis
Urethritis
Conjunctivitis
Reiter's Sro
HLA B27

assoc w/ infx of :
Chlamydia
Shigella, Salmonella, Yersinia
Campylobacter
#microbiology #pathology
Reiter's Sro
Reactive Arthritis
Urethritis
Conjunctivitis

HLA B27


assoc w/ infx of :
Chlamydia
Shigella, Salmonella, Yersinia
Campylobacter
#microbiology #pathology
Fried Egg sign on Facial Blisters
Impetigo

NB may be either staph or strep!

also note: while APSGN may follow strep impetigo, Rheumatic Fever will not! Rheumatic Fever ONLY assoc w/ throat infx
#microbiology
Terbinafine mechanism of action
inhibition of squaline epoxidase necessary for ergosterol synthesis
#microbiology #pharmacology #antimicrobials
Anti-fungal: inhibits squalline epoxide
Terbinafine

prevents ergosterol synth
#microbiology #pharmacology #antimicrobials
Gram + Catalase + Coagulase + Organism
Staph Aureus

also β hemolytic
produces a yellow pigment
#microbiology
Gram +
Catalase +
Coagulase --
Novobiocin Sensitive
Bacterium
Staph epidermidis

1. Prosthetic valve endocarditis
2. Catheter Related Infx
3. Prosthetic Joint Septic Arthritis

Coagulase Negative Staph part of normal flora
Infx = special circumstances
#microbiology
Gram +
Catalase +
Coagulase --
Novobiocin Resistant
Bacterium
Staph saprophyticus

UTI's in sexually active young women

Coagulase Negative Staph part of normal flora
Infx = special circumstances
#microbiology
Gram + Catalase + Organism

assoc. w/ UTI's in sexually active young women
Staph saprophyticus

Coagulase Negative
Novobiocin Resistant

Coagulase Negative Staph part of normal flora
Infx = special circumstances
#microbiology
Gram + Catalase + Organism

assoc. w/ Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis
Staph epidermidis

Coagulase negative
Novobiocin sensitive

1. Prosthetic valve endocarditis
2. Catheter Related Infx
3. Prosthetic Joint Septic Arthritis

Coagulase Negative Staph part of normal flora
Infx = special circumstances
#microbiology
Gram + Catalase + Organism

assoc. w/
catheter related infx
Staph epidermidis

Coagulase negative
Novobiocin sensitive

1. Prosthetic valve endocarditis
2. Catheter Related Infx
3. Prosthetic Joint Septic Arthritis

Coagulase Negative Staph part of normal flora
Infx = special circumstances
#microbiology
Gram + Catalase + Organism

assoc. w/

prosthetic joint septic arthritis
Staph epidermidis

Coagulase negative
Novobiocin sensitive

1. Prosthetic valve endocarditis
2. Catheter Related Infx
3. Prosthetic Joint Septic Arthritis

Coagulase Negative Staph part of normal flora
Infx = special circumstances
#microbiology
Gram + Catalase + β Hemolytic Organism
Staph aureus

Coagulase +
produces a yellow pigment
#microbiology
Staph epidermidis
Staph epidermidis

Gram + Catalase +
Coagulase negative
Novobiocin sensitive

1. Prosthetic valve endocarditis
2. Catheter Related Infx
3. Prosthetic Joint Septic Arthritis

Coagulase Negative Staph part of normal flora
Infx = special circumstances
#microbiology
Staph saprophyticus
Gram + Catalase +
Coagulase Negative
Novobiocin Resistant

Assoc w/ UTI's in sexually active young women
#microbiology
describe the pathogenesis of HBV assoc hepatocellular carcinoma
viral integration into host genome
viral protein HBx activates both synthesis of IGF-II and IGF-I-R
#pathology #neoplasia #microbiology
Moldy Grain mutates p53 causes
Aflotoxin G to T mutation causes Hepatocellular Carcinoma
#neoplasia #microbiology #pathology
Subacute Sclerosing Panecephalitis
Complication of Measles which lacks the M protein

No protein, no good antigen for clearing

cough coryza conjunctivitis koplic's spots
#microbiology
Calymmatobacterium inguinal
donovanosis

unTx → elephantiasis

papule → ulcer → soft exophytic w/ indurated boarders
#microbiology
Genital papule ulcerates and produces grey-yellow exudate
H ducreyi

regional LN's swell and may become chronic ulcers themselves
#microbiology
Lac Operon
i is a regulatory region
p is a promotor
o is the operator
z y and are fnx genes

Glucose decreases adenylyl cyclase
↓ glucose → ↑ cAMP
cAMP binds CAP Catabolite Activator Protein
cAMP-CAP complex binds to upstream promtor region and increases lac operon expression

i is upstream of everything and encodes a repressor protein which will bind to o and prevent RNApol from passing O

o is upstrem of z, y & a
lactose will bind the repressor and prevent it from binding o

z codes for βgalactosidase (hydrolysis of lactose)
y gene for permease (lets lactose in)
a for βgalactoside transacetylase, unecessary for metzm

this arrangement is "polycistronic" one mRNA for several proteins
#genetics #microbiology
Myocardial Granulomas
Aschoff bodies indicative of acute rheumatic carditis

plump M∅ w/ abundant cytoplasm and slender ribbons of chromatin = Anitschkow Cells (within Aschoff bodies)
#cardiovascular #pathology #microbiology #rheumatology
What is the most common cause of Native Valve Bacterial Endocarditis
Mitral valve prolapse

rheumatic dz less common
#microbiology #pathology
Encapsulated Bacterial Organisms
Pneumococcus
Meningococcus
H influenzi
S typhi
Group B Strep agalactae
#microbiology #agents
Vi antigen
virulence angiten of salmonell the capsule which protects it from opsonization
#microbiology
Cancer 2° to EBV
Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma esp in China & Africa
Burkitt's Lymphoma in Africa & new Guinea
#pathology #neoplasia #microbiology
DOC: catheter endocarditis
Staph epidermidis

Gram + Catalase +
Coagulase Neg Novobiocin Sensitive

Usually MRSE start with Vancomycin
#microbiology #pathology #cardiovascular #pharmacology #antimicrobials
Naked Viral RNA can be processed by human Ribosomes
must be single stranded and positive sense
#microbiology #molecules
Satellite Phenomenon on Sheep Plate
Blood Agar Plate

Beta hemolytic organism like Staph aureus allows permissive growth of H influenzae which needs NAD+ & Hementin from blood
#microbiology
Killed vaccines generate what kind of response and why?
humoral response instead of T cell response because they can't actually infect cells, so they never get expressed on MHC I so they never induce mCD8T's
#microbiology #immunology
Most likely organisms within hair follicles
Follicullitis: S aureus & P aeruginosa

Furuncles/Carbuncles: S aureus
#microbiology #skin
Which part of HAART is responsible for the cushing-like presentation?
Protease inhibitors
-navirs

lipodystrophy, hyperglycemia, and p450 inhibition
#microbiology #pharmacology #antimicrobials #toxicities
Killed bacterial vaccines
Cholera
Anthrax
Pertussis
Plague
#microbiology #immunology
Live attenuated bacterial vaccines
BCG: tuberculosis
thyphoid vaccine
Tularemia
#microbiology #immunology
Capsular polysaccharide vaccines
Pneumococcus
Hib
Meningococcus
#microbiology #immunology
Cord factor
mycoside: 2 mycolic acids molecules bound via disaccharide [trehalose]

Virulence factor of mycobacteria, mycobacteria which do not have cord factor are not infectious

allows Mtb to grow in thick serpeinte cords, inactivates PMN,s damages mitochondria and induces TNF prodxn
#microbiology
sulfatides
virulence factor of Mtb prevent fusion of lysosomes to phagosomes
#microbiology
What Rx must be taken to eliminate the hepatic stages of malaria
primaquin
#microbiology #antimicrobials #pharmacology
1° mtb infx
Gohn focus: fibrotic focus in lower lobe of lung

Ispilateral hilar adenopathy (w/ calcification)

Gohn complex = both of those

aspiration of <2mm droplets → M∅ phagocytosis → intracellular proliferation → lymphatic cirulation → dissemination
#microbiology #pulmonology
Gohn Focus vs Gohn Complex
Gohn focus: fibrotic focus in lower lobe of lung

Ispilateral hilar adenopathy (w/ calcification)

Gohn complex = both of those

aspiration of <2mm droplets → M∅ phagocytosis → intracellular proliferation → lymphatic cirulation → dissemination
#microbiology #pulmonology
HIV proteins
env: gp160
cleaved into gp120 & gp41
gp120: attachment to T cell
gp41: fusion & entry

gag (p24) capsid protein

pol: reverse transcriptase
#microbiology
Hib Vaccine
polyribosysl-ribitol-phosphate (PRP) - polysaccharide conjugated with protein toxoid from either diphtheria or tetanus

this allows for T cell processing and the production of memory humoral immunity in children under age 18 mo

may be given as early as 2 mo
#immunology
#microbiology
Non-typable Haemophilus influenzae
unencapsulated

commensural
#immunology
#microbiology
Most common bacterial causes of acute otitis media, sinusitis and bacterial conjunctivitis
1. Pneumococcus
2. Non-typable Hib
3. Moraxella catarrhalis

in that order for ALL infections
#microbiology
PRP polysaccharide
capsular antigen of Hib

polyribosysl-ribitol-phosphate (PRP) - polysaccharide conjugated with protein toxoid from either diphtheria or tetanus

this allows for T cell processing and the production of memory humoral immunity in children under age 18 mo

may be given as early as 2 mo
#microbiology
#immunology
Clostridium difficile

Agent, Toxin, Mechanism, Manifestation
toxin A: enterotoxin
mechanism: PMN chemoattractant → cytokine release → mucosal inflam & fluid loss

toxin B: cytotoxin
mechanism: depolymerizes actin filaments
result: mucosal cell death → bowel wall necrosis & pseudomembrane formation
#microbiology #toxins
Toxin which depolymerizes actin filaments
Clostridium difficile toxin B: cytotoxin
mechanism: depolymerizes actin filaments
result: mucosal cell death → bowel wall necrosis & pseudomembrane formation

[toxin A: enterotoxin
mechanism: PMN chemoattractant → cytokine release → mucosal inflam & fluid loss]
#microbiology #toxins
Toxin which attracts PMNs
Clostridium difficile toxin A: enterotoxin
mechanism: PMN chemoattractant → cytokine release → mucosal inflam & fluid loss

[toxin B: cytotoxin
mechanism: depolymerizes actin filaments
result: mucosal cell death → bowel wall necrosis & pseudomembrane formation]
#microbiology
#toxins
What normally protects against C. dif?
intestinal biomass
#microbiology
Zoonotic Dysentery
Campylobacter

Gram negative rod with filament which allows it to move in corkscrew

watery diarrhea which becomes dysenteric

fecal-oral from
1. domestic animals
2. contaminated/undercooked/unpasturized food

Most common infectious agent assoc. with Guillaine-Barre
#microbiology
Most common infectious agent assoc. with Guillaine-Barre
Campylobacter

Gram negative rod with filament which allows it to move in corkscrew

watery diarrhea which becomes dysenteric

fecal-oral from
1. domestic animals
2. contaminated/undercooked/unpasturized food

Most common infectious agent assoc. with Guillaine-Barre
#microbiology
Campylobacter
Campylobacter

Gram negative rod with filament which allows it to move in corkscrew

watery diarrhea which becomes dysenteric

fecal-oral from
1. domestic animals
2. contaminated/undercooked/unpasturized food

Most common infectious agent assoc. with Guillaine-Barre
#microbiology
PABA
para-aminobenzoic acid

folic precursor in prokaryiotes

sulfas are PABA analogues

humans lack abilityt o convert PABA to folic acid, thus require folate
#microbiology
#pharmacology #antibiotics
#biochemistry #molecules
What is the HBVsAg
22 nn glycoprotein componenet of the envelope

NB: not the nucleocapsid
#microbiology #virology
Neonate born to HepB+ mother
HBeAg presence in serum indicative of virulence

usually acquired through birth canal
25% transmission from HBeAg- moms
almost 100% from HBeAg+ moms

Viral replication proceeds at high rate and almost all progress to chronic hepatitis

However, minimal changes in Liver because HepB not directly hepatotoxic and neonatal immune system not capable of responding
#microbiology #virology
Gram positive rods found in CSF tap
Listeria monocytogenes
#microbiology #neurology
Gram negative rods found in CSF tap
E coli
#microbiology #neurology
Hypervariable Pili
Virulence factor of Neisserias
#microbiology
IgG binding outer membrane protein
protein A virulence factor of Staph aureus binds Fc region
#microbiology
Antiphagocytic acpsule
Pneumococcosu
H influenzae
Neisseria
#microbiology
late onset food poisoning

transient waterry diarrhea
c perfringes

toxin formed after ingestion & germination of spores
#microbiology #toxins
The only microbe which causes epiglottitis
Hib
#microbiology
Clue Cells
Gardenlla vaginalis

grey vaginal discharge c "fishy odor"

Tx: metronidazole
#microbiology #genitalia
grey vaginal discharge c "fishy odor"
Gardenlla vaginalis

Clue Cells

tx: metronidazole
#microbiology #genitalia
foamy yellow-green vaginal c foul smell
Trichomonas vaginalis

flagellated protozoan
#microbiology #genitalia
purulent vaginal discharge
Gonorrhea or Chlamydia
#microbiology #genitalia
Sickle Celler Dies of Septic Shock
Pneumococcus or Hemophilus Influenzae
(no spleen, esp susceptible to encapsulated organisms)

Salmonella important for osteomyelitis, not for septicemia
#pathology #microbiology
Aseptic Meningitis in Children
Most commonly Enteroviruses:

Coxsackie virus, echovirus, poliovirus and enterovirus
#microbiology #neurology
PMH: Blunt Trauma to Abdomen c Emergent Surgery presents with Bacteremia
Splenectomy

vulnerable to encapsulated organisms

Pneumococcus
Meningococcus
H influenzae
#microbiology #immunology
Acute Infective Endocarditis
Staph aureus is most common cause

predisposed by undelrying host endotheial damage & fibrin/platelet deposition
#microbiology #pathology #cardiovascular
Most common laboratory abnormality of Legionella pneumonia
hyponatremia
#microbiology
Gram positive rods found in CSF tap
Listeria Monocytogenes

Facultatively Intracellular

β hemolytic gram potisive

Tumbling Motility via "Actin Rockets"
Opportunistic Infection of Neonates and Immunocomp
--Septicemia or Meningitis
Access via Contaminated/Unpasturized Food,
for neonates transplacental or vaginally

Uniquely able to grow at 4*C
#microbiology
Listeria Monocytogenes
Listeria Monocytogenes

Facultatively Intracellular
β hemolytic gram potisive

Tumbling Motility via "Actin Rockets"
Opportunistic Infection of Neonates and Immunocomp
--Septicemia or Meningitis
Access via Contaminated/Unpasturized Food,
for neonates transplacental or vaginally

Uniquely able to grow at 4*C
#microbiology
Gram Positive Rod with Tumbling Motility
Listeria Monocytogenes

Facultatively Intracellular
β hemolytic gram positive


Tumbling Motility via "Actin Rockets"
Opportunistic Infection of Neonates and Immunocomp
--Septicemia or Meningitis
Access via Contaminated/Unpasturized Food,
for neonates transplacental or vaginally

Uniquely able to grow at 4*C
#microbiology
Gram Positive Rod Grows in Refridgerator
Listeria Monocytogenes

Facultatively Intracellular

Tumbling Motility via "Actin Rockets"
Opportunistic Infection of Neonates and Immunocomp
--Septicemia or Meningitis
Access via Contaminated/Unpasturized Food,
for neonates transplacental or vaginally

Uniquely able to grow at 4*C
#microbiology
Lecithinase

Agent, Mechanism
aka Phospholipase C aka α toxin

Produced by C perf
#microbiology #toxins
Trypanosoma cruzi
neurologic sequelae
trypanosome (parasite) carried by Reduviid "Kissing" bug which lives in the walls of rural huts

destroys myenteric plexus & causes PSNS denervation
#microbiology
CXR: pulmonary infiltrates far worse than expected from clincial presentation
M pneumoniae "walking pneumonia"
#microbiology #pulmonology
Cystic Fibrosis vs. SCID
CF presents with recurrent infx (strep, Hib, Morax), but not opportunistic pathogens (fungi, pneumocysticis)
#pathology #microbiology
What kind of vaccine is the rabies vaccine?
Killed
#microbiology
URI's s Croup

Causes by Freq
1. Rhinovirus
2. Influenza
3. Coronavirus
4. Adeno
etc
#microbiology #pulmonology
DOC: Meningococcal Prophylaxis
Rifampin

NB: orange secretions & ↑ p450
#pharmacology #chemotheraputics #microbiology