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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
formed elements
cells (white blood cells, red blodd cells and cell fragments (platelets)
serum and clotting protiens
plasma minus clotting agents
formed elements and fibrin
Layers of coagulated blood
upper layer
middle layer (buffy coat)
lower layer
plasma(serum+clotting element)
white blood cells
red blood cells
(volume RBC's =hematocrite)
functions of the blood
transport of nutrients, gases, metabolic heat, hormones, waste products

HOMEOSTASTIS- regulation of extravascular fluid volume, regulation of pH, regulation of body temperature, protection against infections, protection against blood loss
a nucleated cells when mature and # approx 5 mill
7.5 um in diameter
contain hemoglobin, conjugated protein, f polypeptide complexed to iron-containing heme grops
each heme group is capable of combining with (three things)
O2- oxohemoglobin,
CO2-carbaminohemoglobin, and
do RBC's have a nucleus
not when mature, but when they are immature, they immature and in the macrophages they do
nucleated, leave vascular tissue via diapedesis
azurophilic granules
granules rich in acid phosphatase and peroxidase, so called cause they stain azure when stained with the Wright stain- granules found in all three cell types and are not specific to one type of cell
specific granules
developed after the primary granules- contain substances specific to a certain cell type
named according to the staining characteristics of secondary granules
synthesized by neutrophils and aid in the initiation of the inflammatory process, die while in battle, pus=dead neutrophiles
azurphilic granules
specific granules
typical lysosomes containing acid hydrolases
Spec- contain histamin, leukotrienes, heparin, eosinophil chemotactic factor, neutrophilic chemotactic factor
bone marrow
body mass
originates? where?
3.5-5.9% of body weitht
originates second monthe of intauterine life with in clavicles
specialized cells that participate in the destruction of imperfect, aged, and damaged cells
functions of bone marrow
hematopoiesis, hematoclasia, immunologica- supplies stem lymphocytes to respective lymphoid organs, osseous-osteoblasts, osteoclasts- function in continual remodeling of bone
gross structure of bone marrow
red- indicates hematopoeises (found in flat bones of the body)
large populations of fat cells- little hematopoiesis in this type of marrow
neonate bone marrow
all marrow is red
fat appears?

when is almost all of the fat yellow
5-7 years of age

18th year most marrow in long bones is yellow
2 compartments
vascular compartment
hemopoietic compartment
vascular compartment
nutrients enter bone via nutrient foramina, from there branch into extensive networks of sinusoids

sinusoids predominate,
walls of the sinusoids are surrounded by reticular fibers and phagocytic cells
hemopoietic compartment
location, contents
located between the sinusoids
cells of hemopoietic lineage
connective tissue cells such as mast cells, macrophages, plasma cells, reticular cells
located against the outer walls of the sinusoids to provide ready access of platelets ot circulaton
mesoblastic phase, hepatic phase, splenic phase, myeloid phase
mesoblastic phase
occurs in the yolk sac at about 2 weeks after fertiliza
these cells form blood islands
blood islands
outer cells develop into

inner cells develop into
vessel walls

nucleated erythrocytes
hepatic phase
6th week of gestation, initially only erythrocytes are produced- 8 weeks leukocytes are produced
splenic phase
begins during the second trimester, continues with hepatic phase til end of gestanton
2 lineages of CFU
CFU (colony forming units-spleen)

CFU-L (colony forming unit-lymphocyte)
erythrocytes, granulocte, monocytes, megakaryocytes
give rise to lymphocytes