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57 Cards in this Set

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True or False: Vitamins supply energy (kcals).
False
What is the most unstable vitamin?
Vitamin C
What are the fat soluble vitamins?
Vitamins A,D,E, and K
What are the water soluble vitamins?
All of the B vitamins and Vitamin C
What is a primary vitamin deficiency?
Deficiency related to inadequate intake from the diet
What is secondary nutritional deficiency?
Deficiency related to a disease state; nutrient has increased need, decreased absortion, increased excretion, etc.
What are two veggies with the most antioxidant activity?
Kale and spinach
What are two fruits with the most antioxidant activity?
Prunes and raisins
What is a megadose?
10x or more the RDA/DRI of a nutrient
What are the two classifications of Vitamin A?
1. Retinoids (animal sources - higher toxicity potential)
2. Carotenoids (plant sources - relatively nontoxic)
What is the 'vision vitamin'?
Vitamin A
What is xerophthalmia?
Long term deficiency of Vitamin A that leads to irreversible blindness (mainly in children). Aka clouded cornea
What are the best food sources of vitamin A?
Retinoids: organ meats, cream, butter, egg yolk, margarine
Carotenoids: dark green and yellow fruits and veggies (carrots and sweet potatoes)
Deficiency of what vitamin causes rickets in kids and osteomalacia in adults?
Vitamin D
What is the best source of Vitamin D?
Milk
True or false: Milk and cheese are good sources of Vitamin D.
False; milk is a good source, but cheese is not
What does Vitamin D toxicity cause?
Metastatic calcification, including possible calcification leading to narrower blood vessels in the brain
How much time in the sun is required to produce adequate Vitamin D?
10-15 minutes (then apply sunscreen)
What vitamin is associated with protective effects against cardiac disease/cancers?
Vitamin E
What is the problem with megadosing on Vitamin E?
It may cause excessive bleeding for people on blood thinners (because it acts as a Vitamin K antagonist)
What are the best food sources of Vitamin E?
Vegetable oils, nuts and seeds, whole grains
What is the primary form of Vitamin E in the diet? Which is less prominent?
Tocopherols are the primary form; tocotrienols are less prominent
What is the blood clotting vitamin?
Vitamin K
What problems may result from Vitamin K deficiency?
Bleeding problems, including the gums (gingivitus)
What vitamin can be synthesized by bacterial flora in the gut?
Vitamin K (body may provide between 15% and 50% of its Vitamin K needs)
What is the single most important dietary source of Vitamin K?
Lettuce (green, leafy vegetables)
Of the water soluble vs. fat soluble vitamins, which expresses deficiency symptoms faster?
Water soluble vitamins (limited body storage)
What are the common names of the following B vitamins (if it isn't listed):
1. B1
2. B2
3. Niacin
4. B6
5. Folic acid
6. B12
7. Pantothenic Acid
8. Biotin
1. B1 = Thiamin
2. B2 = Riboflavin
3. Niacin
4. B6 = Pyridoxine
5. Folic acid/folate
6. B12 = Cobalamin
7. Pantothenic acid
8. Biotin
What is the general function of B vitamins?
Coenzymes (assist enzymes as catalysts in energy bearing reactions)
What symptoms are associated with vitamin B deficiency?
Dry, cracked lips and lip sores
What B vitamins are associated with lowering blood homocysteine levels (and therefore lowering the risk of heart disease)?
Folate, B12, and possibly B6
What is Beri Beri? What causes it?
Beri Beri is neurological pain in the extremities caused by a deficiency of thiamin (B1)
What is the best food source of thiamin?
It is widely distributed; high in pork and whole grains
What patients are especially prone to thiamin deficiency?
Alcoholics, people with anorexia nervosa, and patients who recently had gastric bypass surgery
What are the best sources of riboflavin (B2)?
Milk products, meats, and whole/enriched grains
What B vitamin can be sythesized from tryptophan?
Niacin (B3)
What causes pellegra? Why is it called a 4 'D' disease?
Pellegra is caused by a deficiency of niacin; it is called a 4'D' disease because its symptoms are dementia, diarrhea, dermatitis, then death.
What are good food sources of niacin?
HBV proteins; peanut butter, whole and enriched grains
What is the 'PMS vitamin'?
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
What are the symptoms of a vitamin B6 deficiency?
No classic deficiency disease; may present with oral symptoms - glossitis, cheilosis
What are good food sources of Vitamin B6?
Organ meats, meats, grains, ect. (pretty widely distributed)
What is megaloblastic anemia? What causes it?
A deficiency in folic acid causes this deficiency disease; megaloblastic anemia produces RBCs that are large and pale, with a weak cell wall.
What vitamin has been found to decrease the incidence of neural tube defects in offspring (important for pregnant women)?
Folate/folic acid
What are good food sources of Folic acid/folate?
"Foliage" (green, leafy veggies), also OJ, liver, legumes, etc.
What B vitamin is important for cell division/growth and RBC maturation/growth?
Folic acid/folate
What deficiency disease is associated with vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)?
Pernicious anemia (a type of megaloblastic anemia) - has both hematologic and neurologic abnormalities
What is needed for vitamin B12 to be absorbed?
R-protein and intrinsic factor
What B vitamin can only be found in animal food sources?
B12 (meat, milk, eggs)
What vitamin is generally not absorbed until it reaches the illeum of the small intestine (most others are absorbed in the jejunum)?
Vitamin B12
What vitamin is associated with collagen formation/wound healing and protection against infections?
Vitamin C
What are the oral signs/symptoms of Vitamin C deficiency?
Swollen, bleeding gums/gingivitis; loosing teeth; slow healing of soft tissue/surgical sites
What classic deficiency disease is associated with Vitamin C deficiency?
Scurvy (and petechiae - tiny, pinpoint skin hemmorrhages; painful to touch)
What is Ascorbic acid?
Vitamin C
What are the DRIs for Vitamin C?
90mg for males, 75 mg for females (with an additional 35 mg/day for smokers - smoke pollutants destroy vitamin C)
What is the upper tolerable limit for Vitamin C?
2,000 mg/day
What are the best food sources of Vitamin C?
Citrus fruits, strawberries, and cantaloupe
What is the common symptom of Vitamin C toxicity?
GI distress and dry nose bleed