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45 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
heredity
transmission of genetic traits from parent to offspring
genetics
study of heredity
monohybrid cross
cross involving one pair of contrasting traits
true-breeding
displaying only one form of a particular chromosome
p generation
1st two individuals that mate in a genetic cross
f1 generation
the first offspring from a corss of two varieties in the p generation
f2 generation
the offspring form crosses among individuals of the f1 generation
allele
an alternative form of a gene
dominant
genetic trait that is expressed when its allele is homozygous or heterozygous
recessive
genetic trait that is expressed when the contarsting form of the trait is not present
homozygous
refers to an individual with two identical allels for a trait
heterozygous
refers to an individual with two different alleles for a trait
genotype
the genetic makeup of an organism as indicated by its set of allels
phenotype
observable charachteristics in an organism
law of segregtion
first law of heredity staing that pairs of alleles for a trait separate when gametes form
law of independent assortment
second law of heredity stating htat pairs of genes separate independently of one another in meiosis
punnett square
diagram used by biologists to predict the probable offspirng of a genetic cross
test cross
a genetic cross of an individual whose phenotype is dominant but whose genotype is unknown; with a homozygous recessive individual
probabilty
liklihood that a specific event would occur
pedigree
family history that shows how a trait is inherited after several generations
sex linked trait
a tarit that is determined by a gene found on the x chromosome
polygenic trait
characteristic of an organism that is influenced by several genes
incomplete dominance
condition in ehich a trait in an individual is intermediate between the phenoytpe of its two parents
codominance
condition in which both alleles for a gene are expressed when present
multiple alleles
the existence of more than two alleles for a gentic trait
law of independent assortment
second law of heredity stating htat pairs of genes separate independently of one another in meiosis
punnett square
diagram used by biologists to predict the probable offspirng of a genetic cross
test cross
a genetic cross of an individual whose phenotype is dominant but whose genotype is unknown; with a homozygous recessive individual
probabilty
liklihood that a specific event would occur
pedigree
family history that shows how a trait is inherited after several generations
sex linked trait
a tarit that is determined by a gene found on the x chromosome
polygenic trait
characteristic of an organism that is influenced by several genes
incomplete dominance
condition in ehich a trait in an individual is intermediate between the phenoytpe of its two parents
codominance
condition in which both alleles for a gene are expressed when present
multiple alleles
the existence of more than two alleles for a gentic trait
law of independent assortment
second law of heredity stating htat pairs of genes separate independently of one another in meiosis
punnett square
diagram used by biologists to predict the probable offspirng of a genetic cross
test cross
a genetic cross of an individual whose phenotype is dominant but whose genotype is unknown; with a homozygous recessive individual
probabilty
liklihood that a specific event would occur
pedigree
family history that shows how a trait is inherited after several generations
sex linked trait
a tarit that is determined by a gene found on the x chromosome
polygenic trait
characteristic of an organism that is influenced by several genes
incomplete dominance
condition in ehich a trait in an individual is intermediate between the phenoytpe of its two parents
codominance
condition in which both alleles for a gene are expressed when present
multiple alleles
the existence of more than two alleles for a gentic trait