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20 Cards in this Set

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1. fermentation-zymosis:
A process in which an agent causes an organic substance to break down into simpler substances; especially, the anaerobic breakdown of sugar into alcohol
2. cellular respiration-
The process in which a cell breaks down sugar or other organic compounds to release energy used for cellular work; may be anaerobic or aerobic, depending on the availability of oxygen.
3. redox reactions-
Another term for an oxidation-reduction reaction. A redox reaction is any reaction in which electrons are removed from one molecule or atom and transferred to another molecule or atom. In such a reaction one substance is oxidized (loses electrons) while the other is reduced (gains electrons).
4. oxidation/reduction-
a chemical reaction in which an electron is taken from a molecule of the oxidized substance.
5. reducing agent/oxidizing agent-
A substance that causes reduction and is itself oxidized.
6. NAD+-
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide is nonprotein component of certain enzymes and is called the cofactor. If the cofactor is organic, then it is called a coenzyme. Coenzymes are relatively small molecules compared to the protein part of the enzyme. Many of the coenzymes are derived from vitamins./(NAD+)The NAD+ coenzyme is involved with many types of oxidation reactions where alcohols are converted to ketones or aldehydes. It is also involved in the first enzyme complex 1 of the electron transport chain.
7. glycolysis-
A process in which glucose (sugar) is partially broken down by cells in enzyme reactions that do not need oxygen. Glycolysis is one method that cells use to produce energy. When glycolysis is linked with other enzyme reactions that use oxygen, more complete breakdown of glucose is possible and more energy is produced.
8. Krebs cycle-
The citric acid cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the TCA cycle, or the Krebs cycle) is a series of chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that utilize oxygen as part of cellular respiration. In these aerobic organisms, the citric acid cycle is a metabolic pathway that forms part of the break down of carbohydrates, fats and proteins into carbon dioxide and water in order to generate energy.
9. oxidative phosphorylation-
the formation of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate that takes place in the electron transport chain of the mitochondrion.
10. substrate-level phosphorylation-
Using an enzyme to force ATP synthesis; the enzyme transfers a phosphate group from an organic substrate molecule to ADP. Only a small percentage of ATP made in the cell is produced this way.
11. acetyl CoA-
A "groomed" form of pyruvic acid used in the Krebs Cycle. Acetyl CoA is pyruvic acid plus Coenzyme A; it takes one NADH to form it
12. cytochrome (cyt)- A class of protein, found in mitochondrial membranes, whose main function is oxidative phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP.
12. cytochrome (cyt)-
A class of protein, found in mitochondrial membranes, whose main function is oxidative phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP.
13. ATP synthase-
An enzyme in mitochondria that produces ATP by adding a phosphate group to the molecule ADP.
14. chemiosmosis-
The cell creates a gradient of H+ ions (hydrogen ions are pushed out, develop a gradient more on the outside than inside of mitochnodria, flow through Atp synthase, generate energy as they do so) outside of the mitochondria then brings them in through the ATP synthase enzyme, providing the energy necessary to bond ATP.
15. proton-motive force-
In all cells, the energy storage and utilization process involves the Proton-motive force in some step. This can be described as the storing of energy as a combination of a proton and voltage gradient across a plasma membrane. In eukaryotes the Proton-motive force exists across the inner mithochondrial membrane. It is generated by energy from the citric acid cycle and is utilized in the synthesis of ATP via ATP Synthase.
16. aerobic-
living or active only in the presence of oxygen.
17. anaerobic-
literally "without oxygen". A high-intensity energy system where the muscles lack sufficient oxygen to successfully burn fuel, resulting in the production of lactic acid. Anaerobic exercise is very intense and can only be sustained for short periods of time.
18. alcohol fermentation-
Alcohol fermentation is done by yeast and some kinds of bacteria. These microorganisms convert sugars in ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide. Alcoholic fermentation begins after glucose enters the cell. The glucose is broken down into pyruvic acid. This pyruvic acid is then converted to CO2, ethanol, and energy for the cell. Humans have long taken advantage of this process in making bread, beer, and wine. In these three product the same microorganism is used: the common yeast or Saccharomyces Cerevisae.
19. lactic acid fermentation-
is an anaerobic process whereby enzymes break down glucose into lactic acid and transfer energy to ATP
20 facultative anaerobe-
A cell that can make ATP either by fermentation or by chemiosmosis, depending on whether oxygen is available.