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58 Cards in this Set

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Generally biologists rely on the _____________________ to study the surface structures of cells
Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM)
Not light microscope
____________________ are used to study the internal structure of cells.
Transmission electron microscope(TEM)
Not SEM
Both plant and animal cells have the following organelles in common:
a. plasma membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm
b. plasma membrane, cell wall, nucleus
c. plasma membrane, nucleus, chloroplast
d. central vacuole, plasma membrane, nucleus
e. cytoskeleton, nucleus, cell wall
a. plasma membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm
Cytoplasm
The chloroplast is the organelle in which
Photosynthesis occurs
Converts sunlight to energy
What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Prokaryotic cells lack a membrane-enclosed nucleus and are smaller than eukaryotic cells
Prokaryotic is missing something
The plasma membrane consists of two layers of phospholipids. This bilayer is composed of
hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails
hydro
Many of the specific functions of plasma membranes are carried out by ____________________ that are embedded in the phospholipid bilayer
protiens
In the plasma membrane, “transport proteins” help cells
a. move certain substances across the membrane.
b. communicate and recognize each other.
c. synthesize more proteins for cellular movement.
d. carry out mechanical work such as muscle contraction.
e. release chemical signals that will be picked up by proteins in a nearby cell.
a. move certain substances across the membrane
not b or e
What is diffusion
the net movement of particles from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated
equalibrium
What is passive transport
it is the movement of particles in and out without the cell expending energy
no energy
The plasma membrane consists of two layers of phospholipids. This bilayer is composed of
hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails
hydro
Many of the specific functions of plasma membranes are carried out by ____________________ that are embedded in the phospholipid bilayer
protiens
In the plasma membrane, “transport proteins” help cells
a. move certain substances across the membrane.
b. communicate and recognize each other.
c. synthesize more proteins for cellular movement.
d. carry out mechanical work such as muscle contraction.
e. release chemical signals that will be picked up by proteins in a nearby cell.
a. move certain substances across the membrane
not b or e
What is diffusion
the net movement of particles from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated
equalibrium
What is passive transport
it is the movement of particles in and out without the cell expending energy
no energy
Small polar molecules diffuse into and out of the cell through a process called
facilitated transport
The passive transport of water across a selectively permeable membrane is called
osmosis
A plant cell is usually healthiest when surrounded by an environment that is
hyotonic
_____________________ are membrane-enclosed sacs that transport large particles through a plasma membrane.
vesicles
Substances produced in the nucleus are released into the cytoplasm through
pores in the nuclear envelope
What are the 3 parts of the nucleus
Nuclear envelope, nucleolus, chromatin
The cell organelle that works as a “protein assembly line” is the
ribosomes
The organelle that modifies, stores, and routes proteins and other chemical products throughout the cell is the
Golgi apparatus
In the cytoplasm, the _____________________ participate in the storage and digestion of food within the cell.
lysosomes and ribosomes
The site of cellular respiration is the
mitocondrion
What is the function of the plasma membrane
defines the boundary of the cell and regulates the traffic of chemicals between the cell and its surroundings
What is the function of the nucleus
it is the brain of the cell and it stores the genetic material in the form of DNA
What is the function of the cytoplasm
the entire region of the cell between the nucleus and the plasma membrane
What is the function of the cell wall. What kind of cell is in found in.
protects plant cell and maintains its shape
What is the function of the chloroplasts
organelle where photosynthesis occurs
What is the function of the membranes
to keep things seperate
What is a phospholipid bilayers structure
the phosphate end faces the watery inside and watery outside because it is hydrophilic. The fatty acids are hydrophobic and arrange in between the phosphate to avoid water.
What is hydrophobic? Hydrophilic?
Hydrophobic - avoid water
Hydrophilic - attracted to water
How does passive transport work
the inside and outside of the cell always want to maintain a state of equalibrium. Certain small molecules that can pass through the phospholipid bilayer will naturaly move in and out to have equalibrium.
What is diffusion? Give and example
Diffusion is the process of particles moving from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration of a substance. An example is passive transport.
Facilitated diffusion
the process that allows particles that are too large to fit through a selectively permiable membrane.
How does facilitated diffusion work
transport protiens open up a passage in which large particles can pass through.
what is osmosis
the passive transport of water across a selectively permiable membrane
how does osmosis work
if water on the outside of a cell is 70% H2O and the inside is 80% H2O the water will move out of the cell to create an equal H2O %.
What is a solution with a higher concentration of water called
hypertonic
What is a solution with a lower concentration of water called
hypotonic
what a solutions with equal concentrations of water called
isotonic
How does active transport work
during active transport, a specific transport protein pumps a solute across a membrane, usually in the opposite direction to the way it travels in diffusion.
What is exocytosis
when a cell engulfs a subsance in a vessicle by surrounding it
what is endocytosis
when a cell gets rid of a substace by unsurrounding it
What is the function of the nuclear envelope
a membane that surrounds the nucleus. it has pores that allow instructions from DNA to be sent throughout a cell
What is the function of the nucleolus
contains the parts that make up organelles called ribosomes
What is the function of the ribosomes
construct proteins
What is the function of the endoplasmic reticulum
manufactures molecules
What is the function of the rough ER
they manufacture molecules. they also have ribosomes attached to them that produce proteins
What is the function of the smooth ER
Lacks ribosomes but builds lipid molecules
What is the function of the Golgi apparatus
modifies stores and routes proteins and other chemical products to their next destinations.
What is the function of the vacuoles
store undigested nutrents
What is the function of the lysosomes
digest macromolecules such as proteins
What is the function of the microtubules
provide tracks for other organelles to move along and provide a cells structure
What is the function of the microfilaments
enable the cell to move or change shape when protein subunits slide past one another.
What is the function of the flagella
propels cell
What is the function of the cilia
moves cell with bach and forth motions