Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A coma is defined as a period of _______that lasts over an hour, during which the patient’s eyes are closed.
The human body is a complex machine with many intricate components, including _____ bones and _____ muscles
206, 650
One reason why humans and other animals have been successful is because of their _______ body plan.
The Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus invented the classification system that is used by modern biologists, which relies on ________ traits to distinguish among species.
These proteins which act like cellular “glue” to hold cells together is called _________. This protein was first used by the group of animals known scientifically as ________ .
collagen, Porifera
Although sponges have no muscle, no neurons, and no brain, they do have specialized cells for eating and moving water. This specialization occurred first in this group and is known as ___________________.
cell differentiation
Sponges have been in every aquatic habitat on Earth, and to date biologists have identified over _____ species.
The Cnidarians were the first animals to possess _________, allowing them to become the first group of animals to move.
Jelly fish tentacles contain stinging cells, known as ______ for capturing prey.
Muscle tissue is the same in all animals, from the jelly fish to humans. The two type of proteins which enable muscles to contract are ______ and _____.
actin, myosin
To coordinate the motion of muscles, the cnidarians a simple network of _______ that allow the muscle fibers to communicate using a combination of electrical impulses and chemical signals.
nerve cells
The flatworm’s mouth is not in its head but is located on the underside of its body. It consumes its prey by extruding a device known as a _____ from its mouth.
The bright colored markings of most marine flatworms which live in the coral reefs are a warning that they are either _______ or _______
poisonous, not appetizing
Most marine flatworms produce both eggs and sperm, a condition known as __________.
A ________ can contain thousands egg producing segments, reaching a length of 60 feet, and can live for 30 years inside their human host.
tape worm
The dinosaur named _____ is the largest female Tyrannosaurus rex ever discovered. Her skeleton can be viewed at the Field Museum in Chicago, Illinois.
An important for the fossilization of tissues and bones is that these soft tissues must become _______.
The most famous _____ fossils are the Laetoli footprints of early humans, dated to 3.6 million years ago, which represent two adults and a small child walking in an upright position.
_____ fossils can contain the remains of perfectly preserved insects and spiders.
One way to date fossils is to use the order of horizontal layers of rock, known as _____, that have been formed over time. Because the layers are formed sequentially through the ages the age of a fossil can be inferred.
Charles Doolittle Walcott discovered many types of organisms in the fossils of the __________, many of which were so bizarre that he could not find any counterparts among living species.
Burgess Shale
The ________ was a period in time in the early oceans when there was a sudden emergence of animal forms.
Cambrian explosion
One of the hypotheses for the Cambrian explosion was an increase in the Earth’s _______ concentration, which promoted the evolution or larger body forms.
For millions of years, the ocean floor had been covered with clams, but the development of new types of _______ which evolved more effective ways of breaking into the clams _____ almost wiped them out.
predators, shells
The lampsilis mussels have evolved a special fish-like lure that attracts ________. The larvae of the mussel feed on the blood in its gills for several weeks before falling off.
Large Mouth Bass
There are ____ species of bats, of which ____% feed on insects.
900, 70
A good example of the __________ is the cheetah and the gazelle, because no matter how many gazelles the cheetah catches, some gazelles get away.
evolutionary arms race
With a svelte and muscular body, cheetahs can accelerate to a top speed of ____ in a few seconds, but only weigh slightly more than ______
70 mph, 100 lbs
In Lewis Carroll’s Through the Looking-Glass, . Alice asked the ________ why they did not seem to be going anywhere during their race. This scene is a good analogy for the Evolutionary Arms race, in which neither participant can get anywhere, but must keep evolving in order to just keep up.
Red Queen
In 2003 NASA sent the __________ and Opportunity to explore the terrain of Mars and send back pictures and samples to Earth.