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43 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What Effect does caffeine have on the heart rate of Daphnia?
It speeds up the heartrate
What effect does ethanol have on the heartrate of a Daphnia?
It slows down the heartrate
Independent variable
One or more factors that the scientist varies during the experiment
Dependent Variable
A feature that the scientist measures in order to determine if it changes in response to the independent variable
A type of average.
Sum of all scores / Number of scores
The middle number in a ranked series.
5 10 15 20 26 30 35. (20 is the median)
The number that appears most frequently.
The highest number minus the lowest number.
Celsius -> Fahrenheit
5/9 (F - 32)
Fahrenheit -> Celsius
9/5 (F + 32)
Compound Scope Magnification Equation
(eye piece mag) x (objective mag)
Objective lens magnifications: Lowest - Highest
Resolution Equation
0.61∧ / N.A.

(N.A. should be engraved on lens)
What are the major parts of the compound microscope?
Stage, fine adjustment knobs, course adjustment knobs, tube of left eyepiece
What did we use to test for simple sugar?
Benedicts reagent because sugars have an aldehyde attatched to a carbon which is accepted by an oxygen of BR. Changes from blue -> Green low concentration Orange red high concentration
Test for a Polysaccharide - Starch
Iodine final color of dark purple/blue/black
Test for Proteins
Buiret Test turns violet color
What is it about proteins that causes a positive reaction during the biuret test?
The biuret reagent contains a strong base that reacts with the copper sulfate and creates a positive reaction
Test for Lipids
Brown Paper (makes paper transparent)
Test 2 for Lipids
Sudan III test (dye) it will dissolve = 1 layer
the net movement of molecules from one region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
the net movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from a region of its higher molecular activity to a region of lower molecular activity
How does temperature affect the rate of diffusion?
the higher the temperature the higher the rate of diffusion
How does concentration affect diffusion and osmosis?
the larger the molecule the slower it moves thus the slower the distant it covers
the solution that has the lower concentration of solute particles
the solution that has the higher concentration of solute particles
same concentration
dynamic equillibrium
no net movement of molecules will occur
Proteins that act as catalysts in reactions
How does temperature affect enzymes activity?
Temperature can denature an enzyme
what pH do most enzymes prefer?
How do enzymes make reactions occur more rapidly?
by lowering the activation energy
What happens to the Elodea in the salt solution?
Water leaves the Elodea to go into the 5% NaCl solution, causing the cell th shrink. The Elodea is hypotonic to the salt and loses water. (cell wall stays the same)
What happened to the bags with 15% and 30% sucrose when placed in water?
They gained weight. Water moves from the hypotonic beaker into the hyperonic bags.
What happened to the bags containing water when placed in solutions of 15% and 30% sucrose?
They lost weight. Water moved from the hypotonic solution inside the bag into the hypertonic solution of the beaker.
How does measuring CO2 productions relate to respiration and fermentation in yeast?
Through fermentation yeast produces 2 mols of CO2 (fast energy when O2 is not present)
How does measuring CO2 productions relate to respiration and fermentation in germinating beans?
Through respiration the beans release CO2 as a waste.
How does measuring CO2 productions relate to respiration and fermentation in crickets?
Through aerobic respiration crickets release CO2.
What is the difference between aerobic respiration and fermentation?
Aerobic respiration requires O2 and can produce more energy. Fermentation can take place when O2 is lacking.
What does the heat of respiration represent?
Heat is produced as a by product of respiration.
What does the bromthymol blue test in elodea plants test for?
The bromthymol blue is an indicator for the presence of CO2. It turns yellow when a lot of CO2 is present. The tube containing the visible elodea is undergoing photosynthesis so it uses up the CO2.
How does chromotography paper work?
Chromotography paper has fibers of a certain size. Pigments are able to migrate along the paper if the are soluble in an appropriate solvent. They will migrate at different distances.
Explain flourescence.
When we hold a tube of chlorophyll extract up to a bright light. The electrons are boosted to a higher energy level but nothing is there to accept it so it falls back to a lower energy level. Its makes the solution turn red.