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29 Cards in this Set

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prokaryote
pro=first, karyote=kernel; unicellular; lack a nuclear membrane around the nucleus; lack cellular organelles that are bound by membranes (no cholorplasts, no mitochondria)
eukaryotes
eu=true; can be unicellular but typically are multicellular; have a nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane and have organelles bound by membranes (mitochondria and chloroplasts)
endosymbiosis
endo=within, sym=same, biosis=life; theory suggests that these organelles (mitochondria and chloroplasts) were actually free-living bacteria in the distant past but were captured and ingested by larger bacterial cells
cell wall
made up of polysaccharides and amino acids; these protect the bacteria against mechanical and osmotic damage
autotrophs
'self-feeders'; produce their own energy from sunglight or from inorganic compounds; can be photosynthetic
heterotrophs
fed by others; use energy produced by other organisms; play a major role in creating our oxygen atmosphere
nitrogen fixation
can change atmospheric Nitrogen (N2), into a form that can be used by plants; essential for agricultural crops
binary fission
divide into replicas of themselves; asexual reproduction
conjugation
exchange of genetic material; rudimentary form of sexual reproduction
bacillus
rod shaped
coccus
spherical
spirillum
spiral shaped
algae
use various combinations of the major chlorophyll pigments, chlorophyll a, b, c mixed with a wide array of other pigments that give some of them very distinctive colors
protozoa
heterotrophic protists made up this group of phyla
diffusion
passive movement of materials from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, to move gases and waste materials in and out of the cell; results from the random motion of molecules
phagocytosis
engulf their food in their cell membrane and pinch off a section of membrane to form a hllow space inside their cell
vacuole
protists use these to store water, enzymes, and waste products; a hollow space
flagella
tiny movable hairs; similar strucuture to cilia
pseudopodia
false feet
contractile vacuole
drains the cell of waster products and squirts them outside the cell
cilia
tiny movable hairs; similar structure to flagella
spores
haploid reproductive cells that can develop directly into adults
cytoplasmic streaming
process where the cilia move about by extending part their body in a certain direction, and then flow into that extension
endosymbiont
theory that proposes the engulfed prokaryotes provided their hosts with certain advantages associated with their special metabolic abilities
red tide
poisonous and destructive; occur frequently in coastal areas often associated with population explosions of dinoflagellates, whose pigments color the water; kill the marine life
parasite/parasitic
organism that lives on or in another organism of a different species and derives nutrients from it
colonial organism
specialization of cells, division of labor, communication between cells
diatomaceous earth
diatom shells
chorophyll a & b
used for photosynthesis