Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/69

Click to flip

69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How many chromosomes in are in each human body cell?
23 pairs of 46
What is the scientific study of heredity?
genetics
Name 2 gametes.
sperm and egg cells
How many autosomes are in the human body cell?
All the chromosomes except sex chromosomes (44)
What has the greatest influence over traits besides genetice?
environment
recessive
gene that gets masked
gene
a factor for a trait
allele
a factor for a trait
genotype
symbols for genes (TT)
phenotype
physical appearance
homozygous
TT or tt
heterozygous
Tt
probability
liklihood of an event
punnett square
instrument for solving genetic problems 4, 16 or 64
monohybrid cross
cross involving one trait
dihybrid cross
cross involving 2 traits
test cross
cross to determine unknown genotype
incomplete dominance
neither gene dominates
codominance
both genes dominate

AB blood type or sickle cell anemia
polygenic trait
trait controlled by three or more genes.

hair, eye, or skin color
multiple alleles
blood types A,B, and O
gametes
sex cells
meiosis
division of sex cells
autosomes
chromosome numbers 1-22
sex chromosomes
23rd pair

XX - female
XY- male
nondisjunction
failure of chromosomes to seperate properly
Turner's syndrome
XO a sterile female
Klinefelter's
XXY sterile male, cannot reproduce
Down Syndrome
extra 21st chromosome
Symptoms of Down Syndrome
slanted eyes
lower IQ
stubby fingers and toes
polyploidy
inject fruit and vegetables with an extra set of chromosomes
sex-linked trait
trait is linked to the X chromosome on the 23rd pair

ex. color blindness
hemophelia
muscular dystrophy
hemophelia
blood won't clot
amniosentesis
test to determine genetic defects
selective breeding
humans breed purebreed dogs, cattle, and crops
inbreeding
breed two closely related things
hybridization
breed two distantly related things
mutation
mistake in the genetic code
karyotype
map of your chromosomes
pedigree
a family tree showing genetic history
2 genetic experiments
domestication of dogs

indians growing crops like potatos and corn
What did Aerostotle believe about genetics
1. blending hypothesis

2. genes were transfered through the bloodstream
Life of Gregor Mendel
father of genetics

famous work was between the 1860's to 1880's

monk
Why wasn't Mendel famous?
Nobody understood his math until later
Why did Mendel choose pea plants
1. short growing time

2. 7 distinct traits
P
is the original parent
F1
offspring of P
F2
offspring of F1
Mendel's Laws
1. dominance
2. segregation
3. independent assortment
genotype ratio
symbols
phenotype ratio
physical description
diploid
full set of chromosomes
haploid
half set of chromosomes which are gametes
Huntington's disease
caused by a dominant gene Hh or HH and you have it
Tay-Sach's disease
recessive in the Jewish gene pool, it is fatal
MD
sex-linked
hemophelia
sex-linked
Seckle cell anemia
abnormally shaped blood cells
Downs syndroms
extra 21st chromosome
chromosome disorder
Down's , Turners, Klinefelter's syndrome
cystic fibrosis
body suffocates from mucas
PKU
baby can't break down mothers milk
4 blood types
AA or AO
BB or BO
AB
OO
monosomy
one to few chromosomes
trisomy
extra chromosome
inbreeding
breed two similar things
outbreeding or hybridization
breed two dissimilar things
karyotype
chromosome map
pedigree
family tree