Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

241 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When 2 solutions that differ in solute concentration are placed on either side of a selectively permeable membrane and osmosis is allowed to take place the water will
exhibit a net movement to the side with lower water concentration
A cell that neither gains nor loses water when it is immersed in a solution is
Isotonic to its environment
An enzymes function is dependent on its
A rock on top of a mountain contains
potential energy
The region of an enzyme to which a substrate binds is called the
active site
Principle that energy can not be created nor destroyed
Conservation of Energy
What compound directly provides energy for work
Enzymes increase the rate of a reaction by
decreasing activation energy
Usually enzymes are
A meausre of disorder
Energy is transformed from ATP to other molecules by transferring
A phosphate group
ATP is
potential energy
Energy is
the ability to do work
As a result of glycolysis there is a net gain of
The 2nd stage of aerobic respiration is
Krebs Cycle
Waste product of cellular respiration include
Water & Carbon dioxide
Equation for aerboic cellular respiration glucose & oxygen
carbon dioxide + water + energy
Which is completely true
Oxidation is the loss of electrons; reductions is the gain of electrons
Final electron acceptor of aerobic respiration is
Where in cell does glycolysis occur?
Product of glycolysis
pyruvic acid
Anaerobic means
without o2
aerobic means
Aerobic cellular respiration generates about
38 ATP from one glucose
Which reaction produces the most NADH
Krebs Cycle
Which metabolic pathway is common to aerobic and anaerobic processes of sugar breakdown
Basic unit of life
Most closely associated with Darwin
Natural Selection
Difference between tissue and organ system
An organ system includes tissues
Biology is
the study of life
Discovery science is primarily based on
Hypothesis vs Theories
Theories are more comprehensive
What will hapeen if you do not properly finish your antibiotic prescription
You promote the evolution of bacteria resistant to the antibiotic
The aspect of biology that unites all the diverse fields
DNA of a eukaryotic cell is found in the
The lower the PH of a solution
The more acidic
Hydrogens and oxygen of water are held together by
covalent bonds
Berylliums atomic mass is 9, atomic # is 4, how many neutrons
Nitrogen has an atomic # of 7, how many electrons are in the outermost electron shell?
Atom with an electrical chage
Joining adjacent water molecules
Hydrogen Bonds
Second electron shell of an atom can hold a max of
8 electrons
When a base is added to a buffered solution the buffer will
Donate H+ ions
Waters surface tension and heat storage capacity are accounted for by its
Hydrogen bonds
What name is given to bonds that involve the sharing of electrons?
Sugar dissolves when stirred into water. Sugar is ______, Water is ______, Sweetened water is ________.
Solute, solvent, solution
All atoms of an element have the same # of
Which is not a component of an amino acid
phosphate group
Which is an amino group
What are saturated fats saturated with?
Carbs are defined as
being made of C, H, and O in a 1:2:1 ratio
What name is given to the following reaction. Sucrose + water--> glucose + fructose
A steroid
Nucleic acids are polymers of
Nucleotide monomers
What name is given to the following reaction? Galactose + Glucose---> Lactose + Water
dehydration synthesis
A single carbon atom can form a maximum of how many covalent bonds?
Proteins are polymers constructed from
Amino acid monomers
A hydroxyl group
Plant cells unlike animal cells are characterized by the presence of
Cell wall and central vacuole
Which is a function of the plasma membrane?
Regulation of the passage of material into and out of the cell
If a cells lysosomes burst, the cell would
Digest itself
What's the name of the organelle that manufactures the components of ribosomes
Major lipids of plasma membranes
What theory states that all living things are composed of cells
Cell theory
Microtubules are a component of
The cytoskeleton
Where does protein synthesis take place?
Which organelle is responsible for photosynthesis
2 basic types of cells are
Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic
Osmosis can be defined as
Diffusion of water through a membrane
Diffusion is an example of
Passive transport
In a hypotonic solation a plant cell will
become turgid
If placed in tap water an animal cell will undergo lysis a plant cell will not what accounts for the difference
Relative inelasticity and strength of the plant cell wall
Facilitated diffusion across a biological membrane requires _______ and moves a substance _______ its concetration gradient
Transport proteins, down
Active transport
All of the above
In Eukaryotic Cells, the chromosomes are found in what organelle?
What is the name of hte structure that joins the sister chromatids?
A chromosome that is in the shape of an "X" is known as a duplicated chromosome. What is the term for the two "sides" of a duplicated chromosome?
The diploid cell in humans has 46 chromosomes. How many of these are autosomes?
Genes are specific instructions carried on ________. The specific place or address is called the _________.
Chromosomes, Locus
Which of the following presents the correct order of stages in one complete cell cycle?
Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis
What is the result of crossing over in late prophase I of meiosis?
Genetic Recombination
Which of the following stages is NOT part of mitosis?
How many individual cells are needed for asexual reproduction?
Interphase, the longest stage in the cell cycle, includes all of the following except:
Chromatin becomes tightly coiled
What is the probability that a son will inherit a X-linked recessive trait from his father?
A person who is heterozygous for an autosomal recessive disorder is
a carrier
the heterozygote expresses the phenotype of both homozygotes
The result of crossing two different purebreeds
Carries two copies of the same allele for a gene
Polygenic Trait
shows a continuous or bell curve distribution
Incomplete Dominance
the phenotype of the heterozygote falls between the phenotypes of the two homozygotes
specific location of a gene of a chromosome
Alternate form of a gene
the genetic makeup of an organism
physical characteristics of an organism
What type of genes do not adhere to Mendels Principle of Independent Assortment?
What is the expected phenotpic ration from a double heterozygous dihybrid cross?
When you don't know the genotype of an individual expressing the dominant trait, you would cross this individual with an individual who
Is homozygous recessive for that trait
According to Mendels Principle of Segregation
Gametes have one copy of each allele
Hairy ears is a y-linked trait. A man with hairy ears has a daughter who has a son with a man who does not have hairy ears. What's the probability that the man w/hairy ears grandson has hairy ears?
A plant that is homozygous for yellow seeds is crossed w/ a plant that is homozygous for green seeds. All of the seeds in the offspring of this cross are yellow. Why?
The yellow allele is dominant to the green allele
What is the sex chromosome complement for the normal female?
I short hair (L) is dominant to long hair (l), animals LL and ll have the same
Describe a cell that went through the stages of mitosis but not cytokinesis
It would have two nuclei
Stage in the cell cycle that must come before a nuclear division is
Which is not true of human chromosomes?
Human gametes end up with two of each type of the 23 chromosomes
After replication:
each new DNA double helix consists of one old strand and one new strand
In DNA, double helix adenine pairs with ______ and guanine pairs with _______.
Thymine, Cytosine
Who was the first person to discover and make a model of the structure of DNA?
Watson & Crick
If Adenine makes up 20% of the bases in a DNA double helix, what percent of the bases are guanine?
The backbone of DNA consists of
a repeating sugar-phosphate-sugar-phosphate pattern
In order to reproduce, HIV must use its own
Reverse transcriptase
How many amino acids are common to all living systems?
Which of these is always true with regards to a DNA double helix?
THe amount of adenine is equal to the amt of thymine & the amt of guanine is equal to the amt of cytosine
Translation Coverts the information stored in ____________ into a ______________.
RNA, polypeptide
How can viral DNA be spread from cell to cell without causing cell death?
Via a lysogenic cycle
The RNA that is translated is ____________ RNA
Which nitrogen bases are double-ringed purines?
Adenine & Guanine
DNA and RNA are polymers of _____________ monomers
What is the ultimate source of all diversity?
The mRNA codon UCA codes for an amino acid carried by a tRNA with the anticodon ___________.
Viruses that infect bacteria are ___________.
What name is given to the collection of traits exhibited by an organism?
HOw many nucleotides make up a codon?
HIV is responsible for
If one strand of DNA double helix has the sequence GTCCAT, what's the sequence of the other strand?
What is transcription?
The manufacture of a strand of RNA complementray to a strand of DNA
What type of bond joins the bases of complementary DNA strands?
RNA contains __________, whereas DNA contains________.
Peptide bonds forms between __________
Amino Acids
What is the site of translation?
A chromosomes gene sequence that was ABCDEFG before mutation & ABCDLMNOP afterward is an exaple of
Which is not an example of a virus
Mutations can be
All of the above
Which is a mutation-producing chemical?
What will be the approximate shape of the age-structure diagram of a stable population?
a Rectangle
Type I survivorship curves are typical of species that exhibit
few offspring, good parental care
In the absense of limiting factors, a populations growth follows a(n) ______ model.
Species that exhibit an equilibrial life history typically
have a population size close to carrying capacity
A survivorship curve in which most organisms die very early in life and few survice to adulthood
is called an opportunistic life history
What is the primary source of energy in nearly all of Earth's ecosystems?
The maximum population size that can be supported by available environmental resources defines
Carrying capacity
Over time, the populations of most species
are relatively stable
Competition among individuals of the same species is _________ competition
The number of individuals of a population per unit area is the _________
population density
What level of ecology is concerned w/ both the biotic and abiotic aspects of an environment?
What level of ecology is concerned w/ groups of individuals of different species?
What is a population?
A group of organisms of the same species isolated in space and time
In the presence of limiting factors, a population's growth follows a _________ model.
Which of these best describes Type II survivorship?
relatively constant death rate throughout the life span
What level of ecology is concerned with the adaptations of individuals?
Which of these best describes Type III survivorship?
Very high death rate very early in life followed by a decline in death rate
Opportunistic species typically
have a high rate of reproduction
Which of the following is abiotic?
a rock
What level of ecology is concerned w/ groups of individuals of the same species?
What are estuaries?
regions where fresh water & salt water mix
A mosquito that lives off of the blood of birds and mammals is an example of
In an aquatic ecosystem, what name is given to the region where photosynthesis can occur?
photic zone
The Sahara Desert and the Negev Desert belong to the same
What of these organisms are ultimately responsible for making energy available to the other organimsms listed here?
Which of these biomes is one of the most biologically productive of all biomes?
how does energy flow differ from chemical cycling?
Energy flow is unidirectional; chemical elements can be recycled
What type of bacteria convert nitrogen from a form that can be assimilated by plants into N2?
denitrifying bacteria
Overgrazing of savannas can result in the formation of
Which of these convert organic matter into inorganic matter by breaking down dead organisms?
Which of these organisms converts atmospheric nitrogen gas into a form that can be utilized by plants?
Organisms at the first trophic level are
Plants take is carbon dioxide from _________ and in the process of _____________ build carbohydrates
Air, photosynthesis
In the food chain grass-->antelope--->human--->lion, the human is a
secondary consumer
Bacteria and fungi that feed on wastes and decomposing organisms in an ecosystem are examples of
Populations of two coexisting species both only feed at the third trophic level. What relationship may exist between these two organisms?
Humans are
Which of the following was NOT presented as an example of an introduced species?
Timber Wolves in Minnesota
Introduced species can have important effects on biological communities by
doing all of the above
The primary goal of conservation biology is to
counter the loss of biodiversity
Which of the following has the greatest negative impact on the current biodiversity crisis?
Introduced species
On a per capita basis, _________ consumes more energy than the other locations listed here
The U.S.
Modern conservation science increasingly aims at
Sustaining biodiversity of entire communities
Habitat fragmentation
Increases the availability of edges
The single greatest threat to biodiversity is
Habitat destruction
Biodiversity hot spots are identified according to
All of the above
Several years ago I was corssing the border from Canda to the US... ............
There may have been a species that was not native to the U.S. hitching a ride on my apples
Approximately _____ living species have been named and described
1.7 million
In order to better understand the extent of current extinctions, it will be necessary to do which of the following?
identify more of the yet unknown species of organisms on our planet
Small areas that exhibit exceptionally high species diversity are reffered to as
biodiversity hot spots
The oldest known fossils are from about _____ years ago.
3.5 billion
The similarity of the embryos of fish, frogs, birds, and humans is evidence of
common ancestry
In the Hardy-Weinberg formula, what does 2pq represent?
frequency of heterozygotes
The presence of freckles is due to a dominant allele. Four percent of the individuals in a particular population lack freckles. Use the Hardy-Weinberg formula to calculate the percentage of individuals in this population who are homozygous dominant for freckles
All of the alleles of all of the genes within a population defines that population's
gene pool
Natural selection can be defined as
Descent with modification
Which of the following is an example of stabilizing selection?
the birth weight at which newborn humans are most likely to survive and the average weight of newborn humans are about the same
Homology is evidence of
common ancestry
Which of the following is NOT a requirement of natural selection?
Catastrophic events
Which of the following is an example of diversifying selection?
in different parts of Africa a tasty butterfly species mimcs different distasteful butterfly species
The use of molecular biology in the study of evolutionary relationships would NOT specifically apply to the study of
Forelimb structure
What does Darwinian fitness measure?
Reproductive Success
What is genetic drift?
chance changes in the gene pool of a small population
Any particular mutation is most likely to
be neutral
The smallest unit of evolution is
Which of the following is an example of directional selection?
The increase in antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria
Gene flow is accomplished by
Which of the following is most likely explanation for the Amish having a higher incidence of polydactyly (extra fingers/toes) than the human population as a whole
founder effect
Which of the following is a population?
the termites infesting your house
In the African tropics the maintenance of the sickle-cell allele in the human population can be attributed to
stabilizing selection
What term is used to refer to structures that have a similar origin or ancestry even though they may be very different in appearance
When two frog species, Rana Pipiens and Rana sylvatica, mate, the offspring die early in embryonic development. This is an example of
Hybrid inviability
What name is given to the single supercontinent that formed near the end of the Paleozoic?
Of the following taxonomic levels, species found within the same _______ are most closely related
Which of the following is a species name?
Which of the following taxonomic levels is most inclusive?
Analogous structures are evidence of
Convergent evolution
Biological species consist of groups of
Speciation as a result of genetic isolation without geographic isolation is referred to as
sympatric speciation
When brought together in a zoo, two species are capable of mating and producing fertile offspring. Why may they still be considered two distinct species?
Zoos are artifical environments
Dinosaurs were extinct by the end of the
According to island biogeography, the larger an island, the _____.
greater the species richness
A reproductive barrier that prevents species from mating is an example of
a pre-zygotic barrier
The biological species concept cannot be applied to
What type of reproductive isolating mechanism is described by a situation in which female fireflies only mate with males who emit light in a particular pattern?
Behavioral isolation
On what basis are populations assigned to the same biological species?
they can interbreed and produce fertile offspring
The science of naming organisms is called
The current geological era is the
Which of the following are primarily responsible for an unfortunate side effect of eating beans
The prokaryotic group that tends to inhabit extreme environments belongs to
Domain Archaea
Which of the following would NOT support endosymbiosis theory of the origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts
Both are capable of existing independently of the larger cell
Some _______ convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form that can be used by plants
Prokaryotes reproduce by means of
Binary fission
Bacilli are _______ prokaryotes
The simplest eukaryotes are classified as
Nutritionally, most protozoans are
Under ideal conditions, prokaryotes are capable of reproducing at a __________ rate.
Which of the following are most plantlike?
Green Algae
Bacteria that occur in grapelike clusters are
_________ are responsible for toxic red tides
Eukaryotes arose about _____________ years after the first prokaryotes
2.0 billion
Which protozoan group consists soley of parasitic forms?
You discover a prokaryote that can make its own food in the absense of light. Nutritionally, you would classify this prokaryote as a
Which kingdom(s) was (were) the first to colonize land?
Plantae and Fungi
You discover a unicellular organism that moves by what appear to be pseudopodia. You conclude that this organism is______
either a type of amoeba or a type of slime mold
Which of these is arranged in the appropriate sequence from the earliest to the most recent?
Origin of Earth, Origin of Prokaryotes, Beginning of the accumulation of atmospheric oxygen, Oldest Eukaryotic cell fossils, Origin of Multicellular Eukaryotes, Colonization of land by plants and fungi, First humans