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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is an accurate distribution of genetic material and cellular components?
Cellular reproduction
What is the cellular reproduction of prokaryotes that produces genetically identical cells and is divided into three phases?
Binary Fission
The first stage of binary fission is what?
In Binary Fission's replication, what happens?
DNA replicates itself.
The second stage of binary fissin is what?
What is binary fission's elongation all about?
During elongation, there is an increase in cell size and conent between replicated DNA
The third stage of binary fission is what?
In binary fission's seperation, what happens?
cell splits between replicated DNA
What is a cellular reproduction in eukaryotes that is a nuclear division that produces genetically identical cells and occurs in somatic cells?
What are somatic cells?
Body cells
Mitosis is divided into how many phases?
The first phase of mitosis is what?
What happens in interphase?
G1, S, and G2
What is G1?
replication of cellular components
What is S?
DNA replication
What is G2?
A last-minute check point
What is the second phase of mitosis?
What happens in prophase?
The appearance of DNA will change from chromatin to chromosome, and the nucleus will disappear
What is chromatin?
loose and scattered appearance of DNA
What is is a chromosome?
tightly coiled and condensed appearance of DNA
The third phase of mitosis is what?
What happens during Metaphase?
DNA will line up in center of cell
The third phase of mitosis is called what?
Anaphase is...
sepeation of replicated DNA
Telephase is what?
Final stage of meiosis
What happens in telephase?
DNA appearances changes back to chromatin, nucleus will reappear
What is cytokinesis?
seperation of cytoplasm
What is cell plate formation?
cytokenesis in plants
What is clevage furrow?
cytokenesis in animals
What is meiosis? Where does it occur?
A nuclear division that will not produce genetically identical cells. Occurs in sex cells of eukaryotes
Every gene has two _________.
What are alleles?
Alternate form/variation of a gene
What is the Law of Segregation?
Alleles will seperate during meisos
What is the Law of Independent Assortment?
Allele seperation is completely random
What is a dominant allele?
It masks/hides the expression of another allele
What is a recessive allele?
it is masked/hidden in the prescence of another allele
What does homozygous mean?
Same alleles for a gene
What about heterozygous?
different alleles for a gene
A variation to Mendle's hyptothesis is multiple alleles. What does this mean?
The gene has many forms due to mutations.
What is co-domiance?
Two dominant alleles are being expressed equally. (ex: type AB blood)
What is incomplete dominance?
the dominant allele does not completely hide recessive alleles
What is polygenic inheritance?
many genes affect one physical characteristic
What is pleiotrophy?
one gene controlling/affecting many physical charactersistics (SRY gene in males)
What is a phenotype?
physical characteristics of an individual
What is a genotype?
Genetic make-up
What are autosomes?
Chromosome of the body
What are sex chromosomes?
chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual?
XX is what?
XY is what?
What is non-disjunction?
failure of chromosomes to sepearate during meiosis.
What is Trisomy 21?
an individual with three copies of Chromosome 21. Also known as Down Syndrome.
What is Trisomy 21 caused by?
non-disjunction in autosomes
What is Turner Syndrome?
A female with only one x chromosome, caused by non-disjunction in sex chromosomes.
What are the symptoms of Turner Syndrome?
Sterile and lack of second sexual characteristics
What is Trisomy X?
Female with three X Chromosomes. Caused by nondisjunction in sex chromosomes?
What happens to those with Trisomy X?
Nothing. They're normal, but have higher estrogen
What is Klinefelter Syndrome?
Male with two X and one Y. caused by nondisjunction in sex chromosomes
What are the effects of Klinefelter Syndrome?
Sterile, mixed second sexual characteristics.
What is Jacob Syndrome?
Male with one X and two Y chromosomes. caused by nondisjunction in sex chromosomomes.
What are the effects of Jacob Syndrome?
Functions normally. More testosterone...which leads to being tall and stupid.