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59 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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Root word/ Vocab list
anti - blood thinner
bi - twice, double
hypo - under, below
leuko - white
macro - large
epi - upon
peri - around
tri - three
genesis - produce
clast - carve
blast - build
logoy - study of
phillic - loving
phobic - fearing
only the ones which she added to in class
Define Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy - the study of structure

Physiology - the study of function
What are the different types of antatomy?
Systemic - studies body systems

Regional - studyies body regions
Regional is used in Medical school and Systemic is used for nursing and other non-doctoral medical professions.
Know and understand the 7 structural levels of the ody and give eamples of each.
1) Chemical - smallest (atoms)

2) Organelle - Basic component cells (nucleus)

3) Cell - basic unit of life (red)

4)Tissue - group of cells with similar structure and function (connective tissue i.e. cartilage)

5) Organ - group of 2 or more tissue types (heart)

6) Oragan System - group of organs (digestive)

7) Organism - highest level of organization (all structural levels working together)
Know and understand the 6 charachteristics of life and give examples when necessary.
1) Organization - 7 structural levels

2) Metabolism - ability to use energy (digestive)

3) Responsiveness - ability to sense changes in the enviroment and make adjustments

4) Growth - results in an increase in size

5) Differentiation - changes in cell structure and function from generalized to speacialized

6) Formation of new cells or organizations
Define homeostasis, variable, and set point and be able to give examples of each.
Homeostatsis - Maintenence of a constant internal enviroment (maintaining body temperature)

Variable - Conditions that change (enviroment and temperature)

Set Point - Ideal normal value (Blood Pressure, Body Temperature)
What is negative feedback and the different components of negative feedback?
Negative feedback is a mechanism that regulates homeostasis. Negative meaning a deviation from the set point.

Control Center - brain, establishes set point.

Receptor - Detects change (variable)

Effector - Responds to changes
Be able to describe positive feedback and when it occurs.
Positive feedback is a deviation from the set point that becomes greater.

Define anatomical position, superior, inferior, anterior, posterior, lateral, medial, proximal, and distal.
Anatomical - Person with palms up and feet forward.

Superior - above

Inferior - below

Anterior - in front of

Posterior - in back of

Medial - close to the midline

Lateral - away from the midline

Proximal - cloes to the point of attachment

Distal - far fromt he point of attachment
Spinal cord is Postieror to the belly button
Define the following planes: sagittal, midsagittal, transverse, and frontal.
Sagittal - runs vertically and seperates the body into left to right

Midsagittal - runs down the middle and divdes the body into equal left and right

Transverse - Runs horizontally and seperates the bod into top and bottom

Frontal - runs vertically and sperates the body into front and back
Define the following body regions: upper limbs, lower limbs, central, and trunk.
upper limbs - upper arm, forearm, wrist, and hand.

lower limbs - thigh, lowerlegs, ankle, and foot

Central - head, neck, and trunk.

Trunk - chest, abdomen, and pelvis
Define the following body cavities and know which organs are located in the different cavitites: Throatic, abdominal, pelivc, pericardial, peritoneal, mediastinum, and pleural.
Throatic - lungs, heart, thymus gland, esophagus, trachea.

Mediastinum - divides the throacic cavity into left and right

Abdominal - liver, stomach, spleen, intestines, kidney, pancreas

Pelivc - diaphram (seperates thraocic and abdominal)
bladder, and reproductive organs

Pericardial - around the heart

Pleural - around the lungs

Peritoneal - around the abdominal pelvic cavity
a bunch of stuff you won't remember.
Define serous membrane, visceral, parietal, and mesentery.
serous membrane -covers organs and lines cavity walls

visceral - covers organs (heart surface)

Parietal - lines cavity walls (around the pleural cavity)

mesentery - double layeed membrane that covers organs and anchors them to the body wall
visceral - heart surface

parietal - around the pleural cavity
Define energy, kinetic energy, potential energy, and chemical energy.
Energy - ability to do work

Kinetic - energy in motion

Potential - stored energy

Chemical - energy stored in chemical bonds (food)
Chemical - food
What is ATP?
Stored Energy, type of potential enery.
when ATP is broken down ( ATP -> ADP + P) energy is released.
What is a source of glucose?
sugar found in food
What is glucose used to make?
What is glycogen and where is it stored?
Stored glucose. It is stored in liver, muscles, and fat.
Define synthesis, decompostion, exchange reaction, and give an eample of each.
Synthesis - build new molecules. (ADP + P -> ATP)

Decomposition - break down of large molecules (ATP -> ADP + D)

exchange reaction - rearranging (AB + CD -> AC + BD)
Synthesis - energy requireing

Decomposition - energy releasing
Define Enzyme.
Proteins that speed up reactions
Define matter, element, atom, proton, neutron, and electron.
Matter - antthing that occupies space and has mass

Element - Simplest from of matter

Atom - smallest particle of an element

Proton - (+) Charge, inside the nucleus

Electron - (-) Charge, outside the nucleus

Neutron - Neutral Charge, inside the nucleus
Matter - Solid, Liquid, or Gas

Element - Ca, K, Na, Cl

Atom - Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons

What is an acid and base and give and example of each.
Acid - Donates protons, PH below 7 (Hydrochloric Acid)

Base - Accepts protons, PH above 7 (sodium hydroxide)
PH of 7. (blood)
What are the functions of the cell?
Basic unit of life.

Protects and supports.



Cell Metabolism and Energy Releasing.
Define extracellular and intracellular.
Extracellular - material outside the cell.

Intracellular - material inside the cell.
Extra = external

Intra = internal
Be able to describe in detail the structure of the cell membrane (Fluid Mosaic Model).
Made of phosphilpid and proteins.

Phospilipids form a double (bi) layer.

Phophilipids contain 2 regions: polar and non poloar.

Polar - heads, hydrophillic, exposed to water

Nonpolar - taiks, hydrophobic, away from water.
The Fluid Mosaic Model is the crazy picture you drew of the cell membrane diagram.
What is the function of the nucleus?
Houses DNA
What are the nucleolus and ribosomes, where are they located, and what function do they preform?
Nucleoolus - inside the nucleus and makes Ribosomes.

Ribosomes - Attached to RER or cytoplasm. It produces Protiens.
What is the difference between rough and smooth endoplsmic reticulum and what function does each preform?
RER - has ribosomes attached. It makes proteins.

SER - no ribosomes and site of lipid synthesis and detoxification.
What are the characterisitics and functions of the Golgi apparatus?
Closely packed stacks of membranes that collect, sort, package, and distribute protiens and lipids.
The Post Office Theory.
Define Secretory vesicle.
Distributes materials out of the cell.
What are lysosomes?
Contains enzymes that digest forgien material taken into the cell.
What are the charactersitics and functions of the mitochondria?
Contains folds and produces ATP.
What is cytoskeleton and understand its 3 components.
It is the cells framework.

Microtubles - largest in diameter. provides structural support. form cilla and flagella.

Intermediate Filaments - tough and looks like ropes. maintains cell shape.

Microfilaments - aid in movement
Compare and contrast cilla, flagella, and microvilli.
Cilla - on the cell surface, many per cell, and moves substances of certain scells across the cell surface.

Flagella - on the cell surface, 1 per cell, and moves sperm cells.

Microvilli - extentions of the cell surface, shorter than cilla, increases surface area of certain cells.
Understand the 4 different ways molecules can pass through the cell membrane.
1) Directly through

2) Membrane Channels

3) Carrier Molecules

4) Vesicles
Define Diffusion, solution, solutes, solvent, and concentration gradient.
Diffusion - movement of molecules from areas of high to low consentration

Solution - solid, liquid, or gas that contains one or more solutes

Solutes - substance added to the solevent that dissolves

Solvent - Substance such as water that the solute is being addent to

Concentration gradient - measures the concentration difference at 2 points
Define osmosis, hypotonic, hypertonic, isotonic, and filtration.
Osmosis - Diffusion of water acorss the cell membrane

Hypotonic - lower concentration of solutes outside of the cell, higher concentration of water outside the cell, water moves IN the cell, and Lysis.

Hypertonic - Higher concentration of solutes outside the cell, higher concentration of water in the cell, water moves OUT, crenation.

Isotonic - equal concentrate of solutes, water doesn't move, cells remain intact.

Filtration - movement of fluid through a partation with holes
Undertsand the different types of mediated transport and what they require.
Facilitated diffusion - diffusion with the aid of a carrier molecule, requires no ATP.

Active Transport - Moves substances from ow to high concentration, requires ATP.
Compare and contrast endocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis, and exocytosis.
Endocytosis - Process that brings materials into the cell using vesicles

Phagocytosis - Cell eating (solid)

Pinocytosis - Cell drinking (liquid)

Exocytosis - process that carries materials out of the cell using vesicles.
Phago - solid

Pino - Liquid

Exocytosis - exit
Define tissue and histology.
Tissue - roups of cells with similar structure and function plus the extracellular substance (matrix)

Histology - Study of Tissues
Name the 4 types of tissues.
1. Epithelial

2. Connective

3. Muscular

4. Nervous
What are the characterisists of epithelial tissues?
Cells clsoe together, forms most glands, have a free surface.
What are the functions of epithelial tissues?
1. Protect underlying structures

2. Act as a barrier

3. Diffusion and Filtration

4. Secretion

5. Absorption
How are epithelial tissues classified
According to the number of cell layers and cell shape
Know the characteristics, functions, and general loctations of the different type of epithelial tissues.
Simple - 1 layer

Stratified - 2 or more layers

Simple Squamus - 2 layer of flat, tile-like cells. function is diffusion and filtration, and is locaded in blood vessles, lungs, heart, and kidneys

Simple Cuboidal - 1 layer of square shaped cells that sceretes in the glands and ovaries

Simple Columnar - 1 later of tall, narrow cells that secretes music and aosbs in the stomach, intestines, and respritory tract.

Psudostratified Columnar - 1 layer of tall, narrow cells that apear stratified but arent. They secret music and propel debri out of the respitory tract and is locaded in the nose and trachea.

Statified Squamous - many layers of flat cells that protec tand act as a barrier in the skin, mouth, throat, and esophagus

Transitional Epithelium - special type of stratified epithelium that changes (streched = squamus non streched = cuboidal) it holds fluids in the urinary bladder.
Know the different structures of free surfaces such as microvilli, cilia, and goblet cells.
Microvilli - increases the cells surface area

Cilia -Moves things acorss the cell surface

Goblet Cells - Produces mucus
Define tight junctions, hemidesmosomes, and gap junctions.
tight junctions - bind adjacent cells together

hemidesmosomes - bind cells to the abse membrane

gap junctions - small channels that allow molecules to pass between epithelial tissues and allows cells to communcticate
Compare and contrast exocrine and endocrine glands.
Exocrine - glands with ducts

Endocrine - no ducts, exrects directly into the blood stream.
What are the 3 types of extracellular metrixes in connective tissue?
protein fibers, ground substance, fluid
What are the 3 types of protein fibers and their characteristics?
Collagen - look like ropes, and are flexible bust resist streching

Reticular - supporting network that fills pores between organs and tissues

Elastic - recoil after being streched
How are connective tissues classified?
Ordinary, and special
What are the fuctions of connective tissue?
1) Enclose and seperate
2) Connects tissues together
3) Support and movement
4) Storage
5) Cushion and insulate
6) Transport
What are the different types of connective tissues and their characteristics?
Loose - collagen fibers that are far apart

Dense - Collagen fibers packed close together

Adipose - collagen and elastic fibers, cells filled with lipids

Cartilage - provices support and reumes shape after bending

Bone - hard connective tissue that consists of living cells

Red Blood Cells

White Blood Cells
Name the 3 types of cartilage and their charachteristics.
1) Hyaline - between bones and ends, some collagen fibers, reduces friction.

2)Fibrocartilage - Between vertibra, lots of collagen fibers, can withstand compressions

3)Elastic cartilage - ear and nose, elastic fibers, can recoil
Compare and contrast the types of muscle tissues.
Skeletal - many nuclei, perpihpreal, and straited

Cardiac, 1 nucleus, central, and straited

Smooth, 1 nucleus, central, and NOT straited
What are the characteristics of nervous tissue?
Consists of neurons or nerve cells.
Compare and contrast replacement and regeneration of tissue repair.
Regeneration - cells of the same type develop

Replacement - cells of a different type develop
Regeneration - No scar

Replacement - Scar
What are the 4 symptoms of Inflammation?
1) Redness
2) Heat
3) Swelling
4) Pain