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83 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Hydrocarbons
Basic building blocks of all organisms
Four basic groups of polymers (macromolecules)
Carbohydrates,lipids,proteins,nucleic acid
Carbohydrates
Many are sugars.
Contain carbon,hydrogen,and oxygen (CH20)
Glycogen
Animal version of starch
Lipids
Group of molecules (fats/oils) that are insoluble in water
Protein
Proteins are fundamental components of all living cells.Any of a group of complex organic macromolecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually sulfur and are composed of one or more chains of amino acids.
What are the six levels of a protein structure?
(1)the amino acid sequence,(2)coils and sheets,(3)folds or creases called motifs,(4)three-dimensional shape,(5)functional units called domains,(6) individual polypeptide subunits
What are the seven basic functions that proteins facilitate in organisms?
Enzyme catalysis, defense, transport, support, motion,regulation,storage
Enzyme catalysis (proteins)
facilitate chemical reactions in the organism
Defense
(proteins)
Form the basis of the immune system
Transport
(proteins)
Carry O2 to tissues and CO2 away from tissues
Support
(proteins)
maintain the shape and protection of the organism (skin, ligaments,bones, hair)
Motion
(proteins)
contract muscles
Regulation
(proteins)
Act as messengers to and from brain, muscles, various systems
Storage
(proteins)
bind calcium and iron for later use
Three main theories of the Origin of Life
Abiogenesis, Cosmozioc and Supreme Being
Abiogenesis
Theory that life came from some form of non-life
(spontaneous generation,evolution,phylogenesis,big-bang theory
Cosmozioc
Theory that man came from space
Supreme Being
Theory that a Supreme Being made man.
Cell
Smallest structral unit that makes up and carries out the functions of all organisms
What are the three types of cells?
Prokaryotic, Generalized Eurkaryotic (animal)Cell, Generalized Eukaryotic (plant) Cell
Prokaryotic Cell
Simplist organisms that cause disease
Two Groups of Prokaryotic Cells
archaebacteria and bacteria
Eukaryotic (Plant) Cell
Carries out specialized functions for plants
Plasma Membrane
encloses a cell and seperates contents from its surroundings
(composed of phospholipid bilayer)
Phospholipid bilayer
Impedes the passage of any water-soluble substances
Structure of Cell Organelles
Cell wall, cytoskeleton, flagella(cilia), plasma membrane,endoplasmic reticulum (ER), centrioles,nucleus,golgi apparatus,lysosomes, microbodies, chloroplasts, chromosomes, nucleolus, ribosomes, vacuoles
Function of Cell Wall
Protection; support
Function of Cytoskeleton
Structural support; cell movement
Function of Flagella (cilia)
Motility or moving fluids over surfaces
Function of Plasma Membrane
Regulates what passes into and out of cell; cell to cell recognition
Function of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Forms compartments and vesicles; participates in protein and lipid synthesis
Function of Centrioles
Help assemble microtubules
Function of Nucleus
Control center of cell; directs protein synthesis and cell reproduction
Function of Golgi Apparatus
Packages proteins for export from cell; forms secretory vesicles
Function of Lysosomes
Digest worn-out organelles and cell debris; play role in cell death
Function of Microbodies
Isolate particular chemical activities from rest of cell
Function of Mitrochondria
Site of oxidative metabolism
Function of Chloroplasts
Site of photosynthesis
Function of Chromosomes
Contain hereditary information
Function of Nucleolus
Assemble ribosomes
Function of Ribosomes
Site of protein synthesis
Vacuoles
Storage compartment for water, sugar, ions, pigments
What do enzymes do?
Act as catalysts in biological processes
Substrate
A surface on which an organism grows or is attached
James Watson and Francis Crick
Scientist who proposed that the structure of DNA molecule was two chains of nucleotides and are intertwined to make a double helix
Charles Darwin
Theory of evolution and natural selection
Natural Selection
Nature determines if a species will survive
Evolution
Changes in a species over time that allows it to survive
Gregor Mendel
Father of genetics and inheritance
Chromosomes in DNA do what?
Carry genes
Somatic Cell
Full set of chromosomes (46)
Cloning
Reproducing by using the somatic cell
Gametes
Reproductive cells (egg and sperm) 1/2 set of normal chromosomes. Two fuse together to make zygote
Zygote
First part of a human
Polygenetic
Two pairs of genes that are used to determine what is passed on
Rh Factor
Any of several substances on the surface of red blood cells that induce a strong antigenic response in individuals lacking the substance. It can be positive or negative.
Tay-Sachs disease
Fatal genetic disorder where harmful quantities of a fatty substance (ganglioside GM2) accumulate in the nerve cells in the brain.
Cystic Fibrosis
A chronic, progressive, and frequently fatal genetic disease of the mucus glands.
Autosomal chromosomes
Non-sex-linked chromosomes
Sickle Cell Anemia
An abnormal red blood cell that is not round and makes clogs causing oxygen deprivation.
Amniocentesis
Test of the amionic fluid that can show genetic problems in a fetus
Genetic engineering
Adding desirable traits by inserting genes
Artificial insemination
Process where sperm from a male is injected into a females for the purpose of conception
Artifical implant
Zygote is inserted into a uterus
Invitro Fertilization
Combining of a sperm and and egg in a lab setting and then implanted
Ovary
Place where eggs are developed
Ovulation
Matured egg breaks through the ovary
Yolk sac
filled with food for the embryo
Amnionic cavity
Site where baby develops in any cordata/land vertebrae animal.
Placenta
Excretion track for the embryo
(only found in mammals)
Water
90% of the body is water
Carbohydrates
Sugar and starches
Proteins
Sources of essential amino acids
Fats
General storage area for food
Transpiration
The evaporation of water from plants whent the stomata in the cell are open during photosynthesis.
Vascular cambium
Extends through a plant and veins of its leaves sending minerals and water to its parts.
Four qualifications for research
Replicable, falsifiable,stated precisely, apply principle of parsimomy or Occam's razor (logical,simplist explanation possible)
Scientific Method
hypothesis, information gathering, refining theory, developing theory
Types of research methods
Case study, survey, naturalistic observation, laboratory observation, psychological tests, cross-sectional studies, longitudinal studies, correlational research
Positive correlation
one variable increases and the other increases
Negative correlation
one variable increases and the other decreases
Census
Collection of data from all cases or people in a chosen set.