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60 Cards in this Set

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The first set of reactions in cellular respiration is:
Glycolysis
In glycolysis, each glucose molecule is broken down into:
two molecules of pyruvic acid
In the Krebs cycle ______ acid is broken down into _____ and _____
pyruvic acid is broken down into co2 and h2O
Which compounds are produced by the two main types of fermentation?
alcohol or lactick acid
animal cells cannot carry out
alcoholic fermentation
the most important product of the electron transport chain in cellular respiration is:
ATP
In cellular respiration, the final electron acceptor is:
oxygen
cellular respiration benefits organisms by:
transferring energy to ATP
The energy that is released during cellular respiration is stored as
ATP and NADH
Which process doesn't release energy from glucose?
Photosynthesis
What is glycolysis?
first step in rele3asing the energy of glucose, in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid.
What make up the process called cellular respiration?
Glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain.
What is Cellular respiration?
the process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen.
What is the equation for cellular respiration?
6O2 (oxygen) + C6H12O6 (glucose) = 6CO2 (carbon d) + 6H2O (water) + energy
Cellular respiration requires:
oxygen, and a food molecule such as glucose.
Glycolysis takes place in the:
cytoplasm
The Krebs cycle and electron transport take place inside the:
mitochondria
Glcolysis is an ____ ____ process.
Energy releasing.
____ ATP molecules are distributed into the "account" to get glycolysis going, when it is complete, ______ ATP molecules have been produced.
2
4
This gives the cell in glycolysis a net gain of _____ ATP molecules.
2
One of the reactions of glycolysis removes ___ high-energy electrons and passes them to an electron carrier called _______
4
NAD+
The process of glycolysis is so fast that cells can produce thousands of ______ molecules in just a few milliseconds.
ATP
Glycolysis does not require______
oxygen
Glycolysis can supply ______ energy to cells when ______ is not available.
Chemical
Oxygen
Without ______ the cell cannot keep glycolysis going and _____ production stops.
NAD+
ATP
Fermentation occurs when:
oxygen is not present in glycolysis
Fermentation releases energy from food molecules by producing ______ in the absence of _________
ATP
Oxygen
During fermentation, cells convert _____ to ______ by passing high-energy electrons back to pyruvic acid.
NADH
NAD+
Because fermentation does not require oxygen it is said to be:
anaerobic
Anaerobic means
Not in Air
What is the equation for alcoholic fermentation after glycolysis:
pyruvic acid + NADH -> alcohol + CO2 + NAD+
Alcoholic fermentation produces _____ ____ as well as ____
carbon dioxide
Alcohol
What causes bread dough to rise?
Alcoholic Fermentation
Lactic acid fermentation regenerates _____ so that glycolysis can continue.
NAD+
The equation for lactic acid fermentation after glycolysis is:
pyruvic acid + NADH -> lactic acid + NAD+
Unicellular organisms also produce lactic acid as a ____ _____ during fermentation.
waste product
At the end of glycolysis, about ____ percent of the _____ energy that was available in glucose, is still unused, locked in the high-energy electrons of _______ _____.
90
Chemical
Pyruvic Acid
________ is required for the final steps of cellular respiration.
Oxygen
Because the pathways of cellular respiration require oxygen, they are said to be:
Aerobic
The Krebs cycle is named after ____ ____
Hans Krebs
During the Krebs cycle, ____ _____ is broken down into _____ ______ in a series of energy-extracting reactions.
pyruvic acid
carbon dioxide
Because citric acid is the first compound formed in this series of reactions, the krebs cycle is also known as the:
citric acid cycle
The Krebs cycle begins when _____ ______ produced by _________ enters the ______
pyruvic acid
glycolysis
mitochondrion
Acetyl-CoA is found in the ______ cycle.
Krebs
During the Krebs cycle, pyruvic acid is broken down into ____ _____ in a series of energy-extracting reactions.
Carbon Dioxide
The electron transport chain uses the high-energy electrons from the Krebs cyle to convert ____ into ____
ADP
ATP
The products of photosynthesis are similar to the reactants of:
cellular respiration
The products of cellular respiration are the reactants of:
photosynthesis
The krebs cycle generates high-energy electrons that are passed to ____ and ______.
NADH
FADH2
In eukaryotes, the electron transport chain is composed of a series of carrier proteins located in the:
inner membrane of the mitochondrion
In prokaryotes, the electron transport chain is composed of a series of carrier proteins located in the:
cell membrane.
At the end of the electron transport chain is an enzyme that combines these electrons with ____ and ____ to form water.
Hydrogen
Oxygen
_____ serves as the final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain.
Oxygen
_____ is essential for getting rid of low-energy electrons and hydrogen ions.
Oxygens
What are the wastes of cellular respiration?
Low-Energy Electrons
Hydrogen Ions
The Krebs cycle and electron transport enable the cell to produce _____ ATP molecules
36
The final wastes of cellular respiration are ____ and _____ ____
water
carbon dioxide
The remaining 62 percent of the total energy of glucose is ______
released as heat
Cellular respiration is the only way to:
generate a continuing supply of ATP
Lactic acid fermentation help when a runner needs to:
Sprint