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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Genetics
the science that studies heredity
Gregor Mendel
- mid 1800s
- Austrian monk
- Great interest in science and math
- Did years of experiments using pea plants
- Self- Pollination- when a flower fertilizes itself
- Cross Pollination- moving pollen from flower of 1 plant to the flower of a different plant
Mendel’s experimental design
1. Self pollinated plants for several generations to get pure traits this is called the pure generation
1. All white flower est.
2. P generation- Pure generation
2. he cross- pollinated 2 from the P generation they had different traits
1. the new plants + called- the F generation or the first Filial Generation
3. Allowed the F1 generation to self pollinate and called them the F2 generation
Self- Pollination
when a flower fertilizes itself
Cross Pollination
- moving pollen from flower of 1 plant to the flower of a different plant
true breeding
all offsping display only one form of a particular trait
P generation
Pure generation
F1 Generation
result when he cross pollinated 2 various forms of the P generation that exhibited contrasting traits
F2 Generation
result when he allowed F1 generation to self polinate
Dominant Traits
- they are expressed or shown
- they are stronger traits
Recessive Traits
- are not shown or expressed when in the presents of a dominant trait
- they are weaker traits
Homozygous individual
happens when the 2 factors they get from the 2 parents are the same trait
Heterozygous individual
when the 2 factors you get from the 2 parents are different
Allele
copy of that factor or gene that you get
Phenotype
the actual physical appearance that an animal or person shows
Genotype
the genetic traits that a person or animal or creature posses- shown or not shown
Law of Segregation
members of each pairs of alleles separate when sex cells or gametes are formed
Law of Independent Assortment
pairs of alleles separate independently of one another during gamete formation
Probability
the likely hood that a specific event will occur
Monohybrid cross
a cross that provides data about one pair of contrasting traits
Punnett Square
a diagram or tool scientists use to help them predict the out come of a cross
Dihybrid Cross
- a cross comparing 2 pairs of contrasting traits
- Some concept as but more complicated
Incomplete Dominance
- A trait that lies between 2 parents
- Whit Flow/ Red flow- Pink flower
Co dominance
2 dominant alleles expressed at the same time
Multi alleles
- some genes have trait with more then 2 alleles/
- Blood types
Continual Variation
- when equal genes affect a trait/
- allow many variations of a trait/
- Height, weight
Environmental effects
- can cause physical changes
-white winter coat
Genetic disorder
when mutated genes cause harmful effects
Siccle cell anemia
- blood defect
- mutated hormones that cause red blood cells to form a siccle shape
- Can’t carry …. Well
- causes blood clots
- almost always in black race
Hemophilia
- recessive disorder
- Blood can’t clot during injuries
sex- linked trait
a trait that is determined by a gene found only on the X chromosome
Pedigree
- Studying a family history
Phenylketonuria
- Genetic disorder
- Lack an enzyme which converts one amino acid into another
- PKU
- Causes severe mental retardation
- Early treatment can control the problem