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47 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
anatomy
defined as the study of the structure of an organism
physiology
study of the functions of an organism
tissues
groups of cells with common structure and function
4 types of tissues
1. Epithelial - sheets of tightly packed cells; covers body, lines organs of body and acts as protective barrier. one side is always bound to underlying support surface called basement membrane. other surface faces either air or fluid environment.
2. connective tissue. supports and binds other tissues. consists of scattered cells within an extracellular matrix. some are cartilage, tendons, ligaments, bone and blood.
3. nervous tissue. senses stimuli and transmits signals from one part of body to glands, muscles and brain.
4. muscle tissue. composed of long cells called muscle fibers that contract when they are stimulated by nerve impulse.
3 types of muscles
1. skeletal muscle
2. cardiac muscle
3. smooth muscle
organs
organized groups of tissues
organ systems
organs that work together cooperatively to do a common function.
interstitial fluid
internal environment of animal
homeostasis
internal balance in an animal
3 components of homeostatic control system
1. receptor - detects a change
2. control center - processes info and directs effector
3. effector - makes appropriate response
metabolic rate
amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time
endothermic
warmed by heat generated by metabolism
ectothermic
do not enough heat by metabolism to influence body temp.
basal metabolic rate
its metabolic rate at rest, experiencing no stress, and has empty stomach.
essential nutrients
those that must be obtained in preassembled organic form because the animal cannot produce them.
essential amino acids
about half the 20 must be obtained from food.
animals cannot make and must ingest.
vitamins
organic molecules that are required in the diet in small amounts.
used as co-factors in ezymed controlled bioreactions.
minerals
simple and organic nutrients that are also required by diet in small amounts
herbavors, carnivors, and omnivors are terms
so use them!
ingestion
the act of taking in food, first stage in processing food
digestion
break down of food into small molecules capable of being absorbed by cells
enzymatic hydrolysis
reaction by which macromolecules are broken up, involves addition of water
absorption
stage in food processing when body cells take up small molecules from digestive tract
elimination
undigested material passes out of digestive tract
intracellular digestion
occurs within cell enclosed enclosed by protective membrane

parazoans digest food this way
extracellular digestion
food is broken down outside of cells,
gastrovascular cavity
where digestion takes place in simple animals - single opening through which food enters and waste is eliminated
complete digestive tracts (allimentary canals)
one way digestive tubes, that begin with the mouth and end with the anus
saliva
to be secreted when food is in mouth be a nervous reflex lubricates and contains enzyme salivary amylase-hydrolyzes starch and glycogen into smaller polysaccharids and the disaccharide maltose
bolus
during chewing food is shaped into a ball
pharynx
junction that opens into the esophagus and tracheia
epiglottis
(flap made of cartilage) moves to cover tracheia during swallowing diverting it to the esophagus
parastalsis
rythmic waves of contraction by smooth muscles in walls of esophagus to move food from pharynx to stomach
stomach
located in upper abdominal cavity, functions include storing food and secreting gastric juice
gastric juice
contains hydrochloric acid (Ph of about 2) breaks down extracellular matrix of meat and plant materials, kills most of bacteria ingested with food
pepsin
enzyme in gastric juice that begins to hydrolize proteins into smaller polypeptides
pepsinogen
inactive form in which pepsin is secreted and activated hydrochloric acid in stomach
acid chyme
substance that is result of digestion in stomach and is shunted from end of stomach into beggining of small intestince via the pyloric sphincter, other opening called cardiac oriface
small intestines
longest section of the allimentary canal, beginning is site of most hydrolysis of macromolecules and rest is responsible absorption of nutrients into blood
duodenum
first section of small intestine, where acid chyme mixes with secretions from pancreas, liver, gall bladder, and intestinal wall itself
bicorbonate
secretion from pancreas which acts as a buffer against acid chyme
bile
secretions from liver which contains bile salts - detergents that aid in digestion
how particular macromolecules are broken down in small intestines
ddd
1. breakdown of carbohydrates
pancreatic amylases break stach glycogen and small polysacharides into disaccharides, breakdown of disachharides occurs at wall of intestinal epithelium
monosaccharides are quickly absorbed
2. proteins
pepsin already started, tripsin and chymotrypsin break polypeptides into smaller chains
dipeptidases, carboxypeptidase, and aminopeptidase are the enzymes involved
3. nucleic acids
similar to proteins, nucleases break them down into their small parts
4. fats
digestion of fats starts in the small intestine. Bile sals coat the fat droplets and keep them from coalescing (in emulsification), and lipase hydrolyzes them